New study shows UK adolescents require a vitamin D intake of between 10 to 30 µg per day to maintain adequate tissue levels and avoid deficiency
By Rob Winwood
A 20-week intervention trial (1) of vitamin D has been carried out over the winter months with 110 British adolescents aged 14–18 years as part of the pan-European ODIN (Optimal vitamin D) project. These older teenagers were randomly supplemented with placebo, 10 µg or 20 µg vitamin D per day. These can be considered reasonable levels as the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) advises 100 µg/d as a tolerable upper intake level for 11 to 17 year olds (2).
Prolonged vitamin D deficiency is known to be detrimental to bone health and leads to rickets and osteomalacia (bone softening) in adults and children respectively (3). Low vitamin D status has been widely reported among people living in the northern latitudes of Europe, particularly during the winter months. It is suggested that adolescents are at risk of low vitamin D levels because they are less likely to be exposed to sunlight than children. This is of concern as bone growth occurs rapidly during teenage years. Vitamin D is essential in ensuring that sufficient calcium is absorbed by bones to enable them to reach peak bone mass. Failure to do so could put them at risk of age-related bone density loss later in life.
Following the intervention, the mean serum 25(OH)D concentrations increased from 49 nmol/L to 52 and 64 nmol/L for the 10.1 µg/d and 20 µg/d groups, respectively. The study authors used this data to calculate that vitamin D intakes of between 10 and 30 µg per day are required during the winter months to maintain serum concentrations above 25 or 50 nmol/L (depending on the threshold level chosen). This agrees well with the UK Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) recommendation of a requirement of an intake of 10 µg/d to maintain a minimum 25 nmol/L mean serum 25(OH)D concentration (4). The authors believe their study will assist in the ongoing refinement of vitamin D requirements for adolescents (1).
- Smith TJ, Tripkovic L, Damsgaard CT et al.; “Estimation of the dietary requirement for vitamin D in adolescents aged 14 – 18 y: a dose-response, double-blind, randomized, placebo controlled trial”; AJCN 2016, 1–9. http://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.116.138065.
- EFSA NDA Panel, EFSA Journal 2012, 10(7): 2813. DOI: 10.2903/j.efsa.2012.2813
- Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes for calcium and vitamin D. Washington (DC): National Academies Press; 2011.
- SACN (Scientifics Advisory Committee on Nutrition). “Vitamin D and health report 2016.” https://www.gov.uk/goverment/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/537616/SACN_Vitamin_D_and_Health_report.pdf