- Di Mascio P, Kaiser S, Sies H. Lycopene as the most efficient biological carotenoid singlet oxygen quencher. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1989; 274(2):532–538.
- Holick CN, Michaud DS, Stolzenberg-Solomon R, et al. Dietary carotenoids, serum beta-carotene, and retinol and risk of lung cancer in the alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene cohort study. Am J Epidemiol. 2002; 156(6):536–547.
- Giovannucci E. A review of epidemiologic studies of tomatoes, lycopene, and prostate cancer. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2002; 227(10):852–859.
- Giovannucci E, Ascherio A, Rimm EB, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Willett WC. Intake of carotenoids and retinol in relation to risk of prostate cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1995; 87(23):1767–1776.
- Gann PH, Ma J, Giovannucci E, et al. Lower prostate cancer risk in men with elevated plasma lycopene levels: results of a prospective analysis. Cancer Res. 1999; 59(6):1225–1230.
- Kirsh VA, Mayne ST, Peters U, et al. A prospective study of lycopene and tomato product intake and risk of prostate cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2006; 15(1):92–98.
- Dahan K, Fennal M, Kumar NB. Lycopene in the prevention of prostate cancer. J Soc Integr Oncol. 2008; 6(1):29–36.
- Al-Delaimy WK. et al. Plasma levels of six carotenoids in nine European countries: report from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Public Health Nutr 2004: 7:713–722.
- Müller H. The daily intake of carotenoids (carotenes and xanthophylls) from total daily diets and carotenoid contents of selected vegetables and fruits. Z Ernährungswiss. 1996; 35: 45–50.
- EFSA Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Food Additives, Flavours, Processing Aids and Materials in Contact with Food, on an application on the use of alpha-tocopherol containing oil suspensions and cold water dispersible forms of lycopene from Blakeslea trispora as a food colour. 2005.
- Johnson-Down L. et al. Food habits of Canadians. Lutein and lycopene intake in the Canadian population. J Am Diet Assoc 2002; 102:988–991.
- Solomons NW. Vitamin A and carotenoids. In: Bowman BA, Russell RM, eds. Present Knowledge in Nutrition. 8th ed. Washington, D.C.: ILSI Press; 2001: 127–145.
- Shao A, Hathcock JN. Risk assessment for the carotenoids lutein and lycopene. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2006; 45 (3):289–98.
- Hendler SS, Rorvik DR, eds. PDR for Nutritional Supplements. Montvale: Medical Economics Company, Inc; 2001.
- Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board. Beta-carotene and other carotenoids. Dietary reference intakes for vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium, and carotenoids. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press; 2000:325–400.
- Gallicchio L, Boyd K, Matanoski G, et al. Carotenoids and the risk of developing lung cancer: a systematic review. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;88(2):372-383.
- Etminan M, Takkouche B, Caamano-Isorna F. The role of tomato products and lycopene in the prevention of prostate cancer: a meta-analysis of observational studies. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2004;13(3):340-345
- Wang Y, Cui R, Xiao Y, Fang J, Xu Q. Effect of carotene and lycopene on the risk of prostate cancer: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of observational studies. PLoS One. 2015;10(9)
- Wang Y, Cui R, Xiao Y, Fang J, Xu Q. Correction: effect of carotene and lycopene on the risk of prostate cancer: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of observational studies. PLoS One. 2015;10(10)
- Key TJ, Appleby PN, Travis RC, et al. Carotenoids, retinol, tocopherols, and prostate cancer risk: pooled analysis of 15 studies. Am J Clin Nutr. 2015;102(5):1142-1157
- Gontero P, Marra G, Soria F, et al. A randomized double-blind placebo controlled phase I-II study on clinical and molecular effects of dietary supplements in men with precancerous prostatic lesions. Chemoprevention or "chemopromotion"? Prostate. 2015;75(11):1177-1186.
- Holzapfel NP, Holzapfel BM, Champ S, Feldthusen J, Clements J, Hutmacher DW. The potential role of lycopene for the prevention and therapy of prostate cancer: from molecular mechanisms to clinical evidence. Int J Mol Sci. 2013;14(7):14620-14646.
- Agarwal, S., et al., Tomato lycopene and low density lipoprotein oxidation: a human dietary intervention study. Lipids (1998): 981-984.
- Mordente, A, et al. Lycopene and cardiovascular diseases: an update. Curr Med Chem. (2011): 1146-1163
- Wang XD. Carotenoids. In: Ross CA, Caballero B, Cousins RJ, Tucker KL, Ziegler TR, eds. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. 11th ed: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2014:427-439
- Clark PE, et al. Phase I-II prospective dose-escalating trial of lycopene in patients with biochemical relapse of prostate cancer after definitive local therapy. Urology. 2006 Jun;67(6):1257-61.
- Porrini M, Riso P. What are typical lycopene intakes? J Nutr. 2005;135(8):2042S–45S
- Lucarini M, Lanzi S, D’Evoli L, Aguizzi A, Lombardi-Boccia G. Intake of vitamin A and carotenoids from the Italian population–results of an Italian total diet study. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2006;76(3):103–9.
Authored by Dr Peter Engel in 2010, reviewed and revised by Jonas Wittwer Scheggon 03.10.2017.