Vitamin B1 // Thiamin

Vitamin B1 Intake Recommendations

Because vitamin B1 (thiamin) facilitates energy utilization, requirements are tied to energy intake, which can be very much dependent on activity levels. The recommendations are based on an average caloric intake.

In 2016, the ESFA panel adopted the population reference intakes (PRI) for vitamin B1 (thiamin) in milligrams (mg) per day (14):

Summary of population reference intakes (PRIs) for thiamin for adults expressed in mg/day:

Age

PRI at PAL = 1.4
(mg/day)(a)

PRI at PAL = 1.6
(mg/day)(a)

PRI at PAL = 1.8
(mg/day)(a)

PRI at PAL = 2.0
(mg/day)(a)

  Men Women Men Women Men Women Men Women
18-29 years  0.99 0.80  1.13  0.91  1.27  1.02  1.41  1.13 
30-39 years 0.96 0.77 1.09 0.88 1.23 0.99 1.36 1.09
40-49 years 0.94 0.76 1.08 0.87 1.21 0.98 1.35 1.08
50-59 years 0.93 0.76 1.06 0.86 1.20 0.97 1.33 1.08
60-69 years 0.85 0.69 0.97 0.79 1.10 0.89 1.22 0.98
70-79 years 0.84 0.69 0.96 0.78 1.08 0.88 1.20 0.97

PAL: physical activity level. PAL values of 1.4, 1.6, 1.8 and 2.0 reflect low active (sedentary), moderately active, active and very active lifestyles (ESFA NDA Panel, 2013).

(a): The ARs for thiamin in mg/day were calculated from the AR for thiamin of 0.072 mg/MJ using the ARs for energy for adults according to the Scientific Opinion on dietary reference values for energy (ESFA NDA Panel, 2013). The PRIs were then derived assuming a CV of 20%.

 

Summary of population reference intakes (PRIs) for thiamin for infants aged 7-11 months expressed in mg/day:

Age PRI (mg/day)(a)
  Boys Girls
7 months 0.27 0.24
8 months 0.28 0.25
9 months 0.29 0.26
10 months 0.30 0.27
11 months 0.31 0.28

(a): The ARs for thiamin in mg/day were calculated from the AR for thiamin of 0.072 mg/MJ using the ARs for energy for adults according to the Scientific Opinion on dietary reference values for energy (ESFA NDA Panel, 2013). The PRIs were then derived assuming a CV of 20%.

 

Summary of population reference intakes (PRIs) for thiamin for children and adolescents expressed in mg/day: 

Age

PRI at PAL = 1.4
(mg/day)(a)

PRI at PAL = 1.6
(mg/day)(a)

PRI at PAL = 1.8
(mg/day)(a)

PRI at PAL = 2.0
(mg/day)(a)

  Boys Girls Boys Girls Boys Girls Boys Girls
1 year 0.33 0.30 - - - - - -
2 years 0.43 0.40 - - - - - -
3 years 0.49 0.46 - - - - - -
4 years 0.53 0.49 0.60 0.56 0.69 0.64 - -
5 years 0.56 0.52 0.65 0.59 0.73 0.68 - -
6 years 0.59 0.55 0.68 0.64 0.77 0.72 - -
7 years 0.64 0.58 0.73 0.68 0.82 0.76 - -
8 years 0.68 0.62 0.77 0.72 0.87 0.80 - -
9 years 0.71 0.67 0.82 0.76 0.92 9.85 - -
10 years - - 0.82 0.77 0.92 0.87 1.02 0.96
11 years - - 0.86 0.81 0.97 0.91 1.08 1.01
12 years - - 0.92 0.85 1.03 0.95 1.15 1.06
13 years - - 0.99 0.89 1.11 1.00 1.23 1.11
14 years - - 1.06 0.92 1.19 1.03 1.32 1.15
15 years - - 1.14 0.94 1.28 1.06 1.42 1.18
16 years - - 1.20 0.96 1.35 1.07 1.50 1.19
17 years - - 1.24 0.96 1.39 1.08 1.55 1.20

PAL: physical activity level. PAL values of 1.4, 1.6, 1.8 and 2.0 reflect low active (sedentary), moderately active, active and very active lifestyles (ESFA NDA Panel, 2013).

(a): The ARs for thiamin in mg/day were calculated from the AR for thiamin of 0.072 mg/MJ using the ARs for energy for adults according to the Scientific Opinion on dietary reference values for energy (ESFA NDA Panel, 2013). The PRIs were then derived assuming a CV of 20%.

 

Summary of population reference intakes (PRIs) for thiamin for pregnant and lactating women (in addition to the PRI for non-pregnant non-lactating women) expressed in mg/day:

Pregnant women PRI(a)(mg/day)
1st trimester + 0.03
2nd trimester + 0.11
3rd trimester + 0.21
Lactating women PRI(a)(mg/day)
0-6 months post-partum + 0.21

(a): The ARs for thiamin in mg/day were calculated from the AR for thiamin of 0.072 mg/MJ using the ARs for energy for adults according to the Scientific Opinion on dietary reference values for energy (ESFA NDA Panel, 2013). The PRIs were then derived assuming a CV of 20%. These values have to be added to the PRI for non-pregnant non-lactating women.

In 1998, the U.S. Food and Nutrition Board set a recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for vitamin B1 (thiamin), based on the prevention of deficiency in generally healthy individuals (15):

Life Stage   Age  Males: mg/day Females: mg/day 

Infants 0–6 months 0.2 (AI) 0.2 (AI)

Infants 7–12 months 0.3 (AI) 0.3 (AI)

Children  1–3 years 0.5 0.5

Children 4–8 years 0.6 0.6

Children 9–13 years 0.9 0.9

Adolescents 14–18 years 1.2 1.0

Adults 19 years and older* 1.2 1.1

Pregnancy all ages - 1.4

Breastfeeding all ages - 1.4 

* For adults, the RDA is 0.5 mg per 1,000 kcal, which amounts to a range of 1.0–1.1 mg per day for women and 1.2–1.5 mg for men, based on an average caloric intake.

As some studies have found inadequate dietary intake and thiamin insufficiency to be more common in elderly populations (16), at least 1.5 mg/day thiamin can be recommended for older adults.

For a detailed overview of recommended daily intakes (PRIs/RDAs) of vitamins and minerals for adults derived from different countries and organizations see PDF.

Authored by Dr Peter Engel in 2010, reviewed and revised by  Angelika Friedel on 29.06.17