Vitamin B9 // Folic Acid

References

References

  1. Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Folic Acid. Dietary Reference Intakes: Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press; 1998:193–305.
  2. Choi SW, Mason JB. Folate and carcinogenesis: an integrated scheme. J Nutr. 2000; 130(2):129–132.
  3. Bailey LB, Gregory JF, 3rd. Folate metabolism and requirements. J Nutr. 1999; 129(4):779–782.
  4. Gerhard GT, Duell PB. Homocysteine and atherosclerosis. Curr Opin Lipidol. 1999; 10(5):417–428.
  5. Honein et al. Impact of folic acid fortification of the US food supply on the occurrence of neural tube defects. JAMA, 2001; 285:2981–6.
  6. Laurence KM, James N, Miller MH, Tennant GB, Campbell H. Double-blind randomized controlled trial of folate treatment before conception to prevent recurrence of neural-tube defects. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1981; 282(6275):1509–11.
  7. Smithells RW, Nevin NC, Seller MJ, Sheppard S, Harris R, Read AP, et al. Further experience of vitamin supplementation for prevention of neural tube defect recurrences. Lancet 1983; 1(8332):1027–31.
  8. Eskes TK. Open or closed? A world of difference: a history of homocysteine research. Nutr Rev. 1998; 56(8):236–244.
  9. Medical Research Council Vitamin Study Research Group. Prevention of neural tube defects: results of the Medical Research Council Vitamin Study. Lancet 1991; 338(8760):131–7.
  10. Scholl TO, Johnson WG. Folic acid: influence on the outcome of pregnancy. Am J Clin Nutr, 2000; 71(5):1295–1303.
  11. Boushey CJ, Beresford SA, Omenn GS, Motulsky AG. A quantitative assessment of plasma homocysteine as a risk factor for vascular disease. Probable benefits of increasing folic acid intakes. JAMA. 1995; 274(13):1049–1057.
  12. Malinow MR, Bostom AG, Krauss RM. Homocyst(e)ine, diet, and cardiovascular diseases: a statement for healthcare professionals from the Nutrition Committee, American Heart Association. Circulation. 1999; 99(1):178–182.
  13. Voutilainen S, Rissanen TH, Virtanen J, Lakka TA, Salonen JT. Low dietary folate intake is associated with an excess incidence of acute coronary events: The Kuopio Ischemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study. Circulation. 2001; 103(22):2674–2680.
  14. Dose-dependent effects of folic acid on blood concentrations of homocysteine: a meta-analysis of the randomized trials. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005; 82(4):806–812.
  15. Saposnik G. et al. Homocysteine-Lowering Therapy and Stroke Risk, Severity, and Disability: Additional Findings From the HOPE 2 Trial. Stroke, 2009; 40:1365.
  16. Bazzano LA, Reynolds K, Holder KN, He J. Effect of folic acid supplementation on risk of cardiovascular diseases: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. JAMA. 2006; 296(22):2720–2726.
  17. Wang X. et al. Efficacy of folic acid supplementation in stroke prevention: a meta-analysis. The Lancet, 2007. 369 (9576):1876–1882.
  18. Sanjoaquin MA, Allen N, Couto E, Roddam AW, Key TJ. Folate intake and colorectal cancer risk: a meta-analytical approach. Int J Cancer. 2005; 113(5):825–828.
  19. Su LJ, Arab L. Nutritional status of folate and colon cancer risk: evidence from NHANES I epidemiologic follow-up study. Ann Epidemiol. 2001; 11(1):65–72.
  20. Terry P, Jain M, Miller AB, Howe GR, Rohan TE. Dietary intake of folic acid and colorectal cancer risk in a cohort of women. Int J Cancer. 2002; 97(6):864–867.
  21. Giovannucci E, Rimm EB, Ascherio A, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Willett WC. Alcohol, low-methionine--low-folate diets, and risk of colon cancer in men. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1995; 87(4):265–273.
  22. Cole BF, Baron JA, Sandler RS, et al. Folic acid for the prevention of colorectal adenomas: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2007; 297(21):2351–2359.
  23. Kim YI. Does a high folate intake increase the risk of breast cancer? Nutr Rev. 2006; 64(10 Pt 1):468–475.
  24. Rohan TE, Jain MG, Howe GR, Miller AB. Dietary folate consumption and breast cancer risk. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2000; 92(3):266–269.
  25. Sellers TA, Kushi LH, Cerhan JR, et al. Dietary folate intake, alcohol, and risk of breast cancer in a prospective study of postmenopausal women. Epidemiology. 2001; 12(4):420–428.
  26. Zhang S, Hunter DJ, Hankinson SE, et al. A prospective study of folate intake and the risk of breast cancer. JAMA. 1999; 281(17):1632-1637.
  27. Weir DG, Molloy AM. Microvascular disease and dementia in the elderly: are they related to hyperhomocysteinemia? Am J Clin Nutr. 2000; 71(4):859–860.
  28. Alzheimer's, see in Alzheimer disease: findings from the Nun study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000; 71(4):993–998.
  29. Luchsinger JA, Tang MX, Miller J, Green R, Mayeux R. Relation of higher folate intake to lower risk of Alzheimer disease in the elderly. Arch Neurol. 2007; 64(1):86–92.
  30. Morris MC, Evans DA, Schneider JA, Tangney CC, Bienias JL, Aggarwal NT. Dietary folate and vitamins B-12 and B-6 not associated with incident Alzheimer's disease. J Alzheimers Dis. 2006; 9(4):435–443.
  31. Morris MC, Evans DA, Bienias JL, et al. Dietary folate and vitamin B12 intake and cognitive decline among community-dwelling older persons. Arch Neurol. 2005; 62(4):641–645.
  32. Wang HX, Wahlin A, Basun H, Fastbom J, Winblad B, Fratiglioni L. Vitamin B(12) and folate in relation to the development of Alzheimer's disease. Neurology. 2001; 56(9):1188–1194.
  33. Seshadri S, Beiser A, Selhub J, et al. Plasma homocysteine as a risk factor for dementia and Alzheimer's disease. N Engl J Med. 2002; 346(7):476–483.
  34. Alpert JE, Mischoulon D, Nierenberg AA, Fava M. Nutrition and depression: focus on folate. Nutrition. 2000; 16:544–581.
  35. Bailey LB. Dietary reference intakes for folate: the debut of dietary folate equivalents. Nutr Rev. 1998; 56(10):294–299.
  36. Reports of the Scientific Committee for Food (31st Series), Nutrient and Energy Intakes for the European Community. 1993.
  37. Bailey LB, Gregory JF, 3rd. Polymorphisms of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase and other enzymes: metabolic significance, risks and impact on folate requirement. J Nutr. 1999; 129(5):919–922.
  38. Kauwell GP, Wilsky CE, Cerda JJ, et al. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase mutation (677C-->T) negatively influences plasma homocysteine response to marginal folate intake in elderly women. Metabolism. 2000; 49(11):1440–1443.
  39. De Bree A et al., Folate intake in Europe: recommended, actual and desired intake, European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 51 (1997) 643–660.
  40.  Nationale Verzehrsstudie II, 2008 (www.was-esse-ich.de), Max-Rubner-Institut, Karlsruhe, Germany.
  41. EC Scientific Committee on Food, Opinion of Scientific Committee on Food on the tolerable upper intake level of folate, European Commission 28.11.2000.
  42. Gassin AL, Fortification and the European consumer: consumer awareness and attitudes to food fortification, Scandinavian Journal of Nutrition 43/4 (1999) 122–124.
  43. McNulty H, Cuskelly GJ, Ward M. Response of red blood cell folate to intervention: implications for folate recommendations for the prevention of neural tube defects. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000; 71(5):1308–1311.
  44. Spina bifida and anencephaly before and after folic acid mandate--United States, 1995-1996 and 1999-2000. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2004; 53(17):362–365.
  45. Mills JL, Signore C. Neural tube defect rates before and after food fortification with folic acid. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2004; 70(11):844–845.
  46. Herbert V. Folic acid. In: Shils M, Olson JA, Shike M, Ross AC, eds. Nutrition in Health and Disease. 9th ed. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins; 1999:433–446.
  47. Hendler SS, Rorvik DR, eds. PDR for Nutritional Supplements. Montvale: Medical Economics Company, Inc; 2001.
  48. Cole BF, Baron JA, Sandler RS, et al. Folic acid for the prevention of colorectal adenomas: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA, 2007; 297(21): 2351–2359.
  49. Figueiredo J. C.et al. Folic Acid and Risk of Prostate Cancer: Results From a Randomized Clinical Trial. 2009; 101:432–435.
  50. Ebbing M et al, Cancer incidence and mortality after treatment with folic acid and vitamin B12. JAMA, 2009; 302(19); 2119-2126
  51. Drake BF and Colditz GA, Assessing cancer prevention studies - A matter of time. JAMA, 2009; 302(19); 2152-2126
  52. European Food Safety Authority, Scientific Committee on Food. Tolerable Upper Intake Levels for Vitamins and Minerals. 2006: ISBN: 92-9199-014-0.
  53. Herrmann W. and Obeid R.: Functions and Deficiencies of B-Vitamins (and Their Prevention). International Encyclopedia of Public Health: ETH - HER. 2017, p199-203.
  54. Obeid R, Oexle K, Rißmann A, Pietrzik K, Koletzko B.: Folate status and health: challenges and opportunities. J Perinat Med. 2016 Apr;44(3):261-8. doi: 10.1515/jpm-2014-0346. Review.
  55. Tian, Tao; Yang, Kun-Qi; Cui, Jin-Gang; Zhou, Lan-Lan; Zhou, Xian-Liang: Clinical Investigation: Folic Acid Supplementation for Stroke Prevention in Patients With Cardiovascular Disease: A Meta-analysis. The American Journal of the Medical Sciences. Mar 2017
  56. Zhang Q, Wang Y, Xin X, Zhang Y, Liu D, Peng Z, He Y, Xu J, Ma X: Effect of folic acid supplementation on preterm delivery and small for gestational age births: A systematic review and meta-analysis.Reprod Toxicol. 2017 Jan;67:35-41. doi: 10.1016/j.reprotox.2016.11.012. Epub 2016 Nov 14
  57. Zhao M, Wu G, Li Y, Wang X, Hou FF, Xu X, Qin X, Cai Y: Meta-analysis of folic acid efficacy trials in stroke prevention: Insight into effect modifiers. Neurology. 2017 May 9;88(19):1830-1838. doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000003909. Epub 2017 Apr 12
  58. Li MM, Yu JT, Wang HF, Jiang T, Wang J, Meng XF, Tan CC, Wang C, Tan L.Efficacy of vitamins B supplementation on mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Curr Alzheimer Res. 2014;11(9):844-52.
  59. Chen H, Liu S, Ji L, Wu T, Ji Y, Zhou Y, Zheng M, Zhang M, Xu W, Huang G.: Folic Acid Supplementation Mitigates Alzheimer's Disease by Reducing Inflammation: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Mediators Inflamm. 2016;2016:5912146. doi: 10.1155/2016/5912146. Epub 2016 Jun 2.
  60. Chen P, Li C, Li X, Li J, Chu R, Wang H.: Higher dietary folate intake reduces the breast cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Cancer. 2014 Apr 29;110(9):2327-38. doi: 10.1038/bjc.2014.155. Epub 2014 Mar 25. Review.
  61. Araújo JR, Martel F, Borges N, Araújo JM, Keating E.Folates and aging: Role in mild cognitive impairment, dementia and depression. Ageing Res Rev. 2015 Jul;22:9-19. doi: 10.1016/j.arr.2015.04.005. Epub 2015 May 2. Review
  62. Stamm RA, Houghton LA.Nutrient intake values for folate during pregnancy and lactation vary widely around the world. Nutrients. 2013 Sep 30;5(10):3920-47. doi: 10.3390/nu5103920. Review.
  63. Selhub J, Rosenberg IH: Excessive folic acid intake and relation to adverse health outcome. Biochimie. 2016 Jul;126:71-8. doi: 10.1016/j.biochi.2016.04.010. Epub 2016 Apr 27. Review.

Authored by Dr Peter Engel in 2010, reviewed and revised by  Angelika Friedel on 29.06.2017