Vitamin D // Calciferol
Vitamin D Intake Recommendations
In 2016, the scientific panel on Dietetic products, nutrition and allergies (NDA) of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) concluded that a population reference intakes (PRI) cannot be derived for vitamin D and therefore, defined adequate intakes (AIs) instead, for all population groups (97).
|6–11 months||10 (400 IU)|
|1–3 years||15 (600 IU)|
|4–6 years||15 (600 IU)|
|7-10 years||15 (600 IU)|
|11-14 years||15 (600 IU)|
|15-18 years||15 (600 IU)|
|> 18 years||15 (600 IU)|
The EFSA authority has set the AI assuming conditions of minimal cutaneous vitamin D synthesis. For pregnancy and lactation, the AI was set to 15 mcg/day.
However, most European countries have their own recommendations for vitamin D intake, recognizing that there may be insufficient sun exposure in larger or smaller groups of the population. As the dietary vitamin D intake is not sufficient to reach the estimated value for adequate intake (in the absence of endogenous synthesis), guaranteeing a desired 25-hydroxyvitamin D serum concentration of at least 50 nmol/l, the nutrition societies of Germany, Austria and Switzerland raised the recommended intake level for babies (0-11 months) to 10 mcg/day and for children and adults to 20 mcg/day in 2012.
|Life Stage||Age||Males: (mcg/day)
|Infants||0–6 months||10 (400 IU)||10 (400 IU)|
|Infants||7–12 months||10 (400 IU)||10 (400 IU)|
|Children||1–3 years||15 (600 IU)||15 (600 IU)|
|Children||4–8 years||15 (600 IU)||15 (600 IU)|
|Children||9–13 years||15 (600 IU)||15 (600 IU)|
|Adolescents||14–18 years||15 (600 IU)||15 (600 IU)|
|Adults||19-70 years||15 (600 IU)||15 (600 IU)|
|Adults||71 years and older||20 (800 IU)||20 (800 IU)|
|Pregnancy||all ages||-||15 (600 IU)|
|Breast-feeding||all ages||-||15 (600 IU)|
Many experts believe that the AI levels should be increased (62, 63, 64, 94). They have proposed an optimal 25(OH)D blood plasma level above 30 nanograms/milliliter (75 nanomoles/liter). To achieve this level a vitamin D intake of at least 800–1,000 IU/day (20–25 micrograms) is required by adults and the elderly as shown by supplementation studies.
Furthermore, the American Academy of Pediatrics recently increased their vitamin D intake recommendation to 400 IU/day for all infants, children, and adolescents (65).
In recent years, many scientific societies and major countries have updated their guidelines for vitamin D with higher recommendations than before (98). A large consensus exists that there is need for sufficient vitamin D levels, however, disagreement still exists with regard to dosage or optimal concentration of 25(OH)D.
For a detailed overview of recommended daily intakes (PRIs/RDAs) of vitamins and minerals for adults derived from different countries and organizations see PDF.
Authored by Dr Peter Engel in 2010, reviewed and updated by Dr Igor Bendik-Falconnier on 18.06.2017