Vitamina A // Retinol

Bibliografía

Bibliografía

  1. Ross AC. Vitamin A and retinoids. In: Shils M, ed. Nutrition in Health and Disease. 9th ed. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins; 1999: 305–327. 
  2. Semba RD. The role of vitamin A and related retinoids in immune function. Nutr Rev. 1998; 56(1 Pt 2): 38–48. 
  3. Semba RD. Impact of vitamin A on immunity and infection in developing countries. In: Bendich A, Decklebaum RJ, eds. Preventive Nutrition: The Comprehensive Guide for Health Professionals. 2nd ed. Totowa: Humana Press Inc; 2001; 329–346. 
  4. McCullough, F. et al. The effect of vitamin A on epithelial integrity. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society. 1999; 58: 289–293. 
  5. Solomons NW. Vitamin A and carotenoids. In: Bowman BA, Russell RM, eds. Present Knowledge in Nutrition. 8th ed. Washington D.C.: ILSI Press; 2001:127–145. 
  6. Lynch SR. Interaction of iron with other nutrients. Nutr Rev. 1997; 55(4):102–110. 
  7. Groff JL. Advanced Nutrition and Human Metabolism. 2nd ed. St Paul: West Publishing; 1995. 
  8. Suharno D, West CE, Muhilal, Karyadi D, Hautvast JG. Supplementation with vitamin A and iron for nutritional anaemia in pregnant women in West Java, Indonesia. Lancet. 1993; 342(8883):1325–1328. 
  9. Comstock GW, Helzlsouer KJ. Preventive nutrition and lung cancer. In: Bendich A, Decklebaum RJ, eds. Preventive Nutrition: The Comprehensive Guide for Health Professionals. 2nd ed. Totowa: Humana Press Inc; 2001: 97–129. 
  10. Omenn GS, Goodman GE, Thornquist MD, et al. Effects of a combination of beta carotene and vitamin A on lung cancer and cardiovascular disease. N Engl J Med. 1996; 334(18):1150–1155. 
  11. Bjelakovic G, Nikolova D, Gluud LL, et al. Mortality in Randomized Trials of Antioxidant Supplements for Primary and Secondary Prevention - A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. JAMA 2007; 297:842–857. 
  12. Bohlke K, Spiegelman D, Trichopoulou A, Katsouyanni K, Trichopoulos D. Vitamins A, C and E and the risk of breast cancer: results from a case-control study in Greece. Br J Cancer. 1999; 79(1):23–29. 
  13. Franceschi S. Micronutrients and breast cancer. Eur J Cancer Prev. 1997; 6(6):535–539. 
  14. Longnecker MP, Newcomb PA, Mittendorf R, Greenberg ER, Willett WC. Intake of carrots, spinach, and supplements containing vitamin A in relation to risk of breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 1997; 6(11):887–892.
  15. Michels KB, Holmberg L, Bergkvist L, Ljung H, Bruce A, Wolk A. Dietary antioxidant vitamins, retinol, and breast cancer incidence in a cohort of Swedish women. Int J Cancer. 2001; 91(4):563–567. 
  16. Zhang S, Hunter DJ, Forman MR, et al. Dietary carotenoids and vitamins A, C, and E and risk of breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1999; 91(6):547–556. 
  17. Ching S, Ingram D, Hahnel R, Beilby J, Rossi E. Serum levels of micronutrients, antioxidants and total antioxidant status predict risk of breast cancer in a case control study. J Nutr. 2002; 132(2):303–306. 
  18. Hulten K, Van Kappel AL, Winkvist A, et al. Carotenoids, alpha-tocopherols, and retinol in plasma and breast cancer risk in northern Sweden. Cancer Causes Control. 2001; 12(6):529–537. 
  19. Dorgan JF, Sowell A, Swanson CA, et al. Relationships of serum carotenoids, retinol, alpha-tocopherol, and selenium with breast cancer risk: results from a prospective study in Columbia, Missouri (United States). Cancer Causes Control. 1998; 9(1):89–97. 
  20. van Soest S, Westerveld A, de Jong PT, Bleeker-Wagemakers EM, Bergen AA. Retinitis pigmentosa: defined from a molecular point of view. Surv Ophthalmol. 1999; 43(4):321–334. 
  21. Berson EL, Rosner B, Sandberg MA, et al. A randomized trial of vitamin A and vitamin E supplementation for retinitis pigmentosa. Arch Ophthalmol. 1993; 111(6):761–772. 
  22. Reports of the Scientific Committee for Food (31st Series), Nutrient and Energy Intakes for the European Community. 1993. 
  23. Deutsche Gesellschaft für Ernährung e.V.; Österreichische Gesellschaft für Ernährung; Schweizerische Gesellschaft für Ernährung; Schweizerische Vereinigung für Ernährung (2001) Referenzwerte für die Nährstoffzufuhr. Umschau/Braus, Frankfurt am Main, 1. Aufl. 
  24.  Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Vitamin A. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington D.C.: National Academy Press; 2001:65–126. 
  25. Adolf T et al. (1995) Ergebnisse der Nationalen Verzehrsstudie (1985-1988) über die Lebensmittel- und Nährstoffaufnahme in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. In: VERA-Schriftenreihe, Band XI. W Kübler, HJ Anders, W Heeschen (Hrsg.) Wissenschaftlicher Fachverlag Dr. Fleck, Niederkleen. 
  26. Gezondheidsraad, Enkele belangrijke ontwikkelingen in de voedselconsumptie (2002). 
  27. UK Office for National Statistics, The National Diet & Nutrition Survey (NDNS): adults aged 19 to 64 years (2003). 
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  30. Brody T. Nutritional Biochemistry. 2nd ed. San Diego: Academic Press; 1999. 
  31. Underwood BA, Arthur P. The contribution of vitamin A to public health. FASEB J. 1996; 10(9):1040–1048. 
  32. Field CJ, Johnson IR, Schley PD. Nutrients and their role in host resistance to infection. J Leukoc Biol. 2002; 71(1):16–32. 
  33. Biesalski H.-K. et al. (2003) Importance of vitamin-A for lung function and development. Mol Aspects Med 24: 431–440. 
  34. Hendler SS, Rorvik DR, eds. PDR for Nutritional Supplements. Montvale: Medical Economics Company, Inc; 2001. 
  35. Penniston K. L. and Tanumihardjo S. A. The acute and chronic toxic effects of vitamin A. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006; 83; 191–201. 
  36. Russell RM. The vitamin A spectrum: from deficiency to toxicity. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000; 71(4):878–884. 
  37. European Food Safety Authority, Scientific Committee on Food. Tolerable Upper Intake Levels for Vitamins and Minerals. 2006: ISBN: 92-9199-014-0. 
  38. Michaelsson K, Lithell H, Vessby B, Melhus H. Serum retinol levels and the risk of fracture. N Engl J Med. 2003; 348(4):287–294. 
  39. Promislow JH, Goodman-Gruen D, Slymen DJ, Barrett-Connor E. Retinol intake and bone mineral density in the elderly: the Rancho Bernardo Study. J Bone Miner Res. 2002; 17(8):1349–1358. 
  40. Feskanich D, Singh V, Willett WC, Colditz GA. Vitamin A intake and hip fractures among postmenopausal women. JAMA. 2002; 287(1):47–54. 
  41. Rohde CM, DeLuca H. Bone resorption activity of all-trans retinoic acid is independent of vitamin D in rats. J Nutr. 2003; 133(3):777–783. 
  42. Johansson S, Melhus H. Vitamin A antagonizes calcium response to vitamin D in man. J Bone Miner Res. 2001; 16(10):1899–1905. 
  43. Rejnmark L, Vestergaard P, Charles P, et al. No effect of vitamin A intake on bone mineral density and fracture risk in perimenopausal women. Osteoporos Int. 2004; 15(11):872–880. 
  44. Sowers MF, Wallace RB. Retinol, supplemental vitamin A and bone status. J Clin Epidemiol. 1990; 43(7):693–699. 
  45. Ballew C, Galuska D, Gillespie C. High serum retinyl esters are not associated with reduced bone mineral density in the Third National Health And Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994. J Bone Miner Res. 2001; 16(12):2306–2312. 
  46. Satia, Jessie A et al: Long-term Use of β-Carotene, Retinol, Lycopene, and Lutein Supplements and Lung Cancer Risk: Results From the VITamins And Lifestyle (VITAL) Study, Am J Epidemiol. 2009; 169(7):815–828. 
  47.  Biesalski H. K. et al. Reexamination of a meta-analysis of the effect of antioxidant supplementation on mortality and health in randomized trials. Nutrients. 2010; 2:929–949.