Micronutrients and diabetes
Diabetes (diabetes mellitus) is an endocrine disorder characterized by insulin insufficiency (type 1 diabetes) or insulin resistance (type 2 diabetes) and chronically raised blood sugar levels. Vascular diseases (diabetic angiopathies) play a deciding role in the course of the disease. Diabetics are more likely to suffer a heart attack or stroke (macroangiopathy), and almost all sufferers are affected by damage to the small blood vessels (microangiopathy), the eyes (retinopathy), kidneys (nephropathy) or nerves (neuropathy). The metabolic status of diabetes sufferers is characterized by permanent oxidative stress due to impaired carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Early and sustained sufficient intake of antioxidant micronutrients that regulate carbohydrate metabolism is therefore particularly important in the prevention of diabetes.
Omega-6 fatty acids and the risks of heart disease
Two international groups of researchers have independently studied the effects of omega-6 fatty acids, one focusing on the risks of coronary heart disease and the other on death. For both studies it was concluded that the risks were lowered with high intake of linoleic acid, the main omega-6 fatty acid, widely present in vegetable oils.
A European-wide study by Food4Me project just released as a white paper provides evidence that personalized nutrition advice is more effective to improve dietary behavior compared to conventional over-simplified, population-based advice.
Research from Choi et al. of the Linus Pauling Institute at Oregon State University has used lipodomics to demonstrate that alpha tocopherol protects key brain lyso-phospholipids from oxidation, notably those based on Docahexaenoic Acid (DHA) in a zebrafish model.