Saturated fatty acids

A birth A fatty acid that is fully saturated with hydrogen atoms, and thus has no double bonds between its carbon atoms. Replacing saturated fats with unsaturated fats in the diet helps to lower the level of total cholesterol in the blood.caused by abnormal development of the neural tube, the structure which gives rise to the central nervous system. Neural tube defects include the absence of most/all of the brain (anencephaly) and a lack of protection of the spinal cord (spina bifida).


A disorder caused by lack of vitamin C. Symptoms include anemia, bleeding gums, tooth loss, joint pain, and fatigue. Scurvy is treated by supplying foods high in vitamin C and vitamin C supplements.

Secondary prevention study

A study aimed at early disease detection, thereby increasing opportunities for interventions to prevent or slow down disease progression in patients.

Sensory Neuropathy

Damage to the nerves that control sensation (‘sensory nerves’). Symptoms include pain and numbness of the extremities and in severe cases, difficulty walking.


The liquid portion of blood, in which the blood cells are suspended. Serum is separated from blood cells using a centrifuge. Unlike blood plasma, serum lacks clotting factors because it is obtained from blood that has been allowed to clot.

Singlet reactive oxygen

Singlet oxygen is a form of reactive oxygen species, which is linked to oxidation of LDL cholesterol resulting in damaging cardiovascular effects (see Atherosclerosis). Antioxidants can scavenge and reduce concentrations of reactive oxygen species and may prevent such adverse oxidative effects.


Compounds that have the same molecular formula and sequence of bonded atoms, yet which differ in the three-dimensional orientations of their atoms in space. Stereoisomers may also differ in their potency.

Steroid hormone

hormone related to cholesterol. Many important hormones such as estrogen and testosterone are steroids.


A damage that occurs to a part of the brain when its blood supply is suddenly interrupted (‘ischemic stroke’) or when a blood vessel ruptures and bleeds into the brain (‘hemorrhagic stroke’). A stroke is also called a “cerebrovascular” accident.

Systematic Review

(also known as a systematic overview)
A review of a clearly formulated question that uses systematic and explicit methods to identify, select, and critically appraise relevant research, and to collect and analyze data from the studies that are included in the review.

Systolic blood pressure

The highest arterial pressure measured during the heart beat cycle, and the first number in a blood pressure reading (e.g.,120/80).