Trace Elements // Zinc



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  11. Wood RJ, Zheng JJ. High dietary calcium intakes reduce zinc absorption and balance in humans. Am J Clin Nutr. 1997; 65(6):1803–1809.
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  16. MacDonald RS. The role of zinc in growth and cell proliferation. J Nutr. 2000; 130(5S Suppl):1500S–1508S.
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  18. Sandstead HH, Penland JG, Alcock NW, et al. Effects of repletion with zinc and other micronutrients on neuropsychologic performance and growth of Chinese children. Am J Clin Nutr. 1998; 68(2 Suppl):470S–475S.
  19. Black MM. Zinc deficiency and child development. Am J Clin Nutr. 1998;68(2 Suppl):464S–469S.
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  22. Wapnir RA. Zinc deficiency, malnutrition and the gastrointestinal tract. J Nutr. 2000; 130(5S Suppl):1388S–1392S.
  23. Bhutta ZA, Bird SM, Black RE, et al. Therapeutic effects of oral zinc in acute and persistent diarrhea in children in developing countries: pooled analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000; 72(6):1516–1522.
  24. Fischer Walker CL, Black RE. Micronutrients and diarrheal disease. Clin Infect Dis. 2007; 45 Suppl 1:S73–77.
  25. Aggarwal R, Sentz J, Miller MA. Role of zinc administration in prevention of childhood diarrhea and respiratory illnesses: a meta-analysis. Pediatrics. 2007; 119(6):1120–1130.
  26. The United Nations Children's Fund/World Health Organization. WHO/UNICEF Joint Statement: Clinical Management of Acute Diarrhoea. Geneva; New York; 2004:1–8.
  27. Bhutta ZA, Black RE, Brown KH, et al. Prevention of diarrhea and pneumonia by zinc supplementation in children in developing countries: pooled analysis of randomized controlled trials. Zinc Investigators' Collaborative Group. J Pediatr. 1999; 135(6):689–697.
  28. Black RE. Therapeutic and preventive effects of zinc on serious childhood infectious diseases in developing countries. Am J Clin Nutr. 1998; 68(2 Suppl):476S–479S.
  29. Shankar AH. Nutritional modulation of malaria morbidity and mortality. J Infect Dis. 2000; 182 Suppl 1:S37–53.
  30. Muller O, Becher H, van Zweeden AB, et al. Effect of zinc supplementation on malaria and other causes of morbidity in west African children: randomised double blind placebo controlled trial. BMJ. 2001; 322(7302):1567.
  31. Sazawal S, Black RE, Ramsan M, et al. Effect of zinc supplementation on mortality in children aged 1-48 months: a community-based randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2007; 369(9565):927–934.
  32. Salgueiro MJ, Zubillaga M, Lysionek A, et al. Zinc status and immune system relationship: a review. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2000; 76(3):193–205.
  33. Fortes C, Forastiere F, Agabiti N, et al. The effect of zinc and vitamin A supplementation on immune response in an older population. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1998; 46(1):19–26.
  34. Shah D, Sachdev HP. Zinc deficiency in pregnancy and fetal outcome. Nutr Rev. 2006; 64(1):15–30.
  35. Caulfield LE, Zavaleta N, Figueroa A, Leon Z. Maternal zinc supplementation does not affect size at birth or pregnancy duration in Peru. J Nutr. 1999; 129(8):1563–1568.
  36. Osendarp SJ, van Raaij JM, Arifeen SE, Wahed M, Baqui AH, Fuchs GJ. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of the effect of zinc supplementation during pregnancy on pregnancy outcome in Bangladeshi urban poor. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000; 71(1):114–119.
  37. Mahomed K, Bhutta Z, Middleton P. Zinc supplementation for improving pregnancy and infant outcome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007; (2):CD000230.
  38. Jackson JL, Lesho E, Peterson C. Zinc and the common cold: a meta-analysis revisited. J Nutr. 2000; 130(5S Suppl):1512S–1515S.
  39. Prasad AS, Fitzgerald JT, Bao B, Beck FW, Chandrasekar PH. Duration of symptoms and plasma cytokine levels in patients with the common cold treated with zinc acetate. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Ann Intern Med. 2000; 133(4):245–252.
  40. Mossad SB. Effect of zincum gluconicum nasal gel on the duration and symptom severity of the common cold in otherwise healthy adults. QJM. 2003; 96(1):35–43.
  41. Hirt M, Nobel S, Barron E. Zinc nasal gel for the treatment of common cold symptoms: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Ear Nose Throat J. 2000; 79(10):778–780, 782.
  42. Turner RB. Ineffectiveness of intranasal zinc gluconate for prevention of experimental rhinovirus colds. Clin Infect Dis. 2001; 33(11):1865–1870.
  43. Belongia EA, Berg R, Liu K. A randomized trial of zinc nasal spray for the treatment of upper respiratory illness in adults. Am J Med. 2001; 111(2):103–108.
  44. Eby GA, Halcomb WW. Ineffectiveness of zinc gluconate nasal spray and zinc orotate lozenges in common-cold treatment: a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Altern Ther Health Med. 2006; 12(1):34–38.
  45. DeCook CA, Hirsch AR. Anosmia due to inhalational zinc: a case report. Chem Senses. 2000; 25(5):659.
  46. VandenLangenberg GM, Mares-Perlman JA, Klein R, Klein BE, Brady WE, Palta M. Associations between antioxidant and zinc intake and the 5-year incidence of early age-related maculopathy in the Beaver Dam Eye Study. Am J Epidemiol. 1998; 148(2):204–214.
  47. Smith W, Mitchell P, Webb K, Leeder SR. Dietary antioxidants and age-related maculopathy: the Blue Mountains Eye Study. Ophthalmology. 1999; 106(4):761–767.
  48. Cho E, Stampfer MJ, Seddon JM, et al. Prospective study of zinc intake and the risk of age-related macular degeneration. Ann Epidemiol. 2001; 11(5):328–336.
  49. Newsome DA, Swartz M, Leone NC, Elston RC, Miller E. Oral zinc in macular degeneration. Arch Ophthalmol. 1988; 106(2):192–198.
  50. Stur M, Tittl M, Reitner A, Meisinger V. Oral zinc and the second eye in age-related macular degeneration. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1996; 37(7):1225–1235.
  51. A randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial of high-dose supplementation with vitamins C and E, beta carotene, and zinc for age-related macular degeneration and vision loss: AREDS report no. 8. Arch Ophthalmol. 2001; 119(10):1417–1436.
  52. Evans JR. Antioxidant vitamin and mineral supplements for slowing the progression of age-related macular degeneration. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006; (2):CD000254.
  53. Evans JR. Antioxidant vitamin and mineral supplements for age-related macular degeneration (Cochrane Review). Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002(1):CD000254.
  54. Cunningham JJ, Fu A, Mearkle PL, Brown RG. Hyperzincuria in individuals with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: concurrent zinc status and the effect of high-dose zinc supplementation. Metabolism. 1994; 43(12):1558–1562.
  55. Anderson RA, Roussel AM, Zouari N, Mahjoub S, Matheau JM, Kerkeni A. Potential antioxidant effects of zinc and chromium supplementation in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Am Coll Nutr. 2001; 20(3):212–218.
  56. Lai H, Lai S, Shor-Posner G, Ma F, Trapido E, Baum MK. Plasma zinc, copper, copper:zinc ratio, and survival in a cohort of HIV-1-infected homosexual men. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2001; 27(1):56–62.
  57. Wellinghausen N, Kern WV, Jochle W, Kern P. Zinc serum level in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients in relation to immunological status. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2000; 73(2):139–149.
  58. Mocchegiani E, Muzzioli M. Therapeutic application of zinc in human immunodeficiency virus against opportunistic infections. J Nutr. 2000; 130(5S Suppl):1424S–1431S.
  59. Tang AM, Graham NM, Saah AJ. Effects of micronutrient intake on survival in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. Am J Epidemiol. 1996; 143(12):1244–1256.
  60. Kupka R, Fawzi W. Zinc nutrition and HIV infection. Nutr Rev. 2002; 60(3):69–79.
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  63. Hunt JR, Matthys LA, Johnson LK (1998). Zinc absorption, mineral balance and blood lipids in women consuming controlled lactoovovegetarian and omnivorous diets for 8 weeks. Am J Clin Nutr 67: 421–430.
  64. Hambidge M. Human zinc deficiency. J Nutr. 2000; 130(5S Suppl):1344S–1349S.
  65. European Food Safety Authority, Scientific Committee on Food. Tolerable Upper Intake Levels for Vitamins and Minerals. 2006: ISBN: 92-9199-014-0.
  66. Irani, M., Amirian, M., Sadeghi, R., Lez, J.L., and Latifnejad Roudsari, R. (2017). The Effect of Folate and Folate Plus Zinc Supplementation on Endocrine Parameters and Sperm Characteristics in Sub-Fertile Men: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Urol J 14, 4069-4078.
  67. Lamberti, L.M.,Walker, C.L., Chan, K.Y., Jian, W.Y., and Black, R.E. (2013). Oral zinc supplementation for the treatment of acute diarrhea in children: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Nutrients 5, 4715-4740.
  68. Lassi, Z.S., Moin, A., and Bhutta, Z.A. (2016). Zinc supplementation for the prevention of pneumonia in children aged 2 months to 59 months. The Cochrane database of systematic reviews 12, CD005978.
  69. Li, P., Xu, J., Shi, Y., Ye, Y., Chen, K., Yang, J., and Wu, Y. (2014). Association between zinc intake and risk of digestive tract cancers: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Nutr 33, 415-420.
  70. McClain, C., Vatsalya, V., and Cave, M. (2017). Role of Zinc in the Development/Progression of Alcoholic Liver Disease. Curr Treat Options Gastroenterol 15, 285-295.
  71. Rembach, A., Hare, D.J., Doecke, J.D., Burnham, S.C., Volitakis, I., Fowler, C.J., Cherny, R.A., McLean, C., Grimm, R., Martins, R., et al. (2014). Decreased serum zinc is an effect of ageing and not Alzheimer's disease. Metallomics 6, 1216-1219.
  72. Swardfager, W., Herrmann, N., Mazereeuw, G., Goldberger, K., Harimoto, T., and Lanctot, K.L. (2013). Zinc in depression: a meta-analysis. Biological psychiatry 74, 872-878,
  73. Terrin, G., Berni Canani, R., Di Chiara, M., Pietravalle, A., Aleandri, V., Conte, F., and De Curtis, M. (2015). Zinc in Early Life: A Key Element in the Fetus and Preterm Neonate. Nutrients 7, 10427-10446.
  74. Wang, L., and Song, Y. (2017). Efficacy of zinc given as an adjunct to the treatment of severe pneumonia: A meta-analysis of randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled trials. Clin Respir J.
  75. Zhao, J., Dong, X., Hu, X., Long, Z., Wang, L., Liu, Q., Sun, B., Wang, Q., Wu, Q., and Li, L. (2016). Zinc levels in seminal plasma and their correlation with male infertility: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Sci Rep 6, 22386.

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