Vitamin B12 // Cyanocobalamin



  1. Brody T. Nutritional Biochemistry. 2nd ed. San Diego: Academic Press; 1999.
  2. Shane B. Folic acid, vitamin B-12, and vitamin B-6. In: Stipanuk M, ed. Biochemical and Physiological Aspects of Human Nutrition. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Co.; 2000:483–518.
  3. Gerhard GT, Duell PB. Homocysteine and atherosclerosis. Curr Opin Lipidol. 1999; 10(5):417–428.
  4. Homocysteine Lowering Trialists' Collaboration. Lowering blood homocysteine with folic acid based supplements: meta-analysis of randomised trials. Homocysteine Lowering Trialists' Collaboration. BMJ. 1998; 316(7135):894–898.
  5. Stabler SP, Lindenbaum J, Allen RH. Vitamin B-12 deficiency in the elderly: current dilemmas. Am J Clin Nutr. 1997; 66(4):741–749.
  6. Fenech M. Micronucleus frequency in human lymphocytes is related to plasma vitamin B12 and homocysteine. Mutat Res. 1999; 428(1-2):299–304.
  7. Lajous M, Lazcano-Ponce E, Hernandez-Avila M, Willett W, Romieu I. Folate, vitamin B(6), and vitamin B(12) intake and the risk of breast cancer among Mexican women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2006; 15(3):443–448.
  8. Shrubsole MJ, Jin F, Dai Q, et al. Dietary folate intake and breast cancer risk: results from the Shanghai Breast Cancer Study. Cancer Res. 2001; 61(19):7136–7141.
  9. Lajous M, Romieu I, Sabia S, Boutron-Ruault MC, Clavel-Chapelon F. Folate, vitamin B12 and postmenopausal breast cancer in a prospective study of French women. Cancer Causes Control. 2006; 17(9):1209–1213.
  10. Eskes TK. Open or closed? A world of difference: a history of homocysteine research. Nutr Rev. 1998; 56(8):236–244.
  11. Mills JL, Scott JM, Kirke PN, et al. Homocysteine and neural tube defects. J Nutr. 1996; 126(3):756S–760S.
  12. Wang HX, Wahlin A, Basun H, Fastbom J, Winblad B, Fratiglioni L. Vitamin B(12) and folate in relation to the development of Alzheimer's disease. Neurology. 2001; 56(9):1188–1194.
  13. Seshadri S, Beiser A, Selhub J, et al. Plasma homocysteine as a risk factor for dementia and Alzheimer's disease. N Engl J Med. 2002; 346(7):476–483.
  14. Ravaglia G, Forti P, Maioli F, et al. Homocysteine and folate as risk factors for dementia and Alzheimer disease. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005; 82(3):636–643.
  15. Luchsinger JA, Tang MX, Miller J, Green R, Mayeux R. Relation of higher folate intake to lower risk of Alzheimer disease in the elderly. Arch Neurol. 2007; 64(1):86–92.
  16. Morris MC, Evans DA, Schneider JA, Tangney CC, Bienias JL, Aggarwal NT. Dietary folate and vitamins B-12 and B-6 not associated with incident Alzheimer's disease. J Alzheimers Dis. 2006; 9(4):435–443.
  17. McMahon JA, Green TJ, Skeaff CM, Knight RG, Mann JI, Williams SM. A controlled trial of homocysteine lowering and cognitive performance. N Engl J Med. 2006; 354(26):2764–2772.
  18. Eussen SJ, de Groot LC, Joosten LW, et al. Effect of oral vitamin B-12 with or without folic acid on cognitive function in older people with mild vitamin B-12 deficiency: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006; 84(2):361–370.
  19. Hutto BR. Folate and cobalamin in psychiatric illness. Compr Psychiatry. 1997; 38(6):305–314.
  20. Penninx BW, Guralnik JM, Ferrucci L, Fried LP, Allen RH, Stabler SP. Vitamin B (12) deficiency and depression in physically disabled older women: epidemiologic evidence from the Women's Health and Aging Study. Am J Psychiatry. 2000; 157(5):715–721.
  21. Tiemeier H, van Tuijl HR, Hofman A, Meijer J, Kiliaan AJ, Breteler MM. Vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine in depression: the Rotterdam Study. Am J Psychiatry. 2002; 159(12):2099–2101.
  22. Ingram CF, Fleming AF, Patel M, Galpin JS. The value of intrinsic factor antibody test in diagnosing pernicious anaemia. Cent Afr J Med. 1998; 44:178–181.
  23. Abularrage CJ, Sidawy AN, White PW, Aidinian G, Dezee KJ, Weiswasser JM, Arora S. Effect of folic Acid and vitamins B6 and B12 on microcirculatory vasoreactivity in patients with hyperhomocysteinemia. Vasc Endovascular Surg. 2007 Aug–Sep; 41(4):339–45.
  24. Yoshihara K, Kubo C. Overview of medical treatment and management of chronic fatigue syndrome. Nippon Rinsho. 2007 Jun; 65(6):1077–81. Review.
  25. Chatterjee S, Chowdhury RG, Khan B. Medical management of male infertility. J Indian Med Assoc. 2006 Feb; 104(2):74, 76–7.
  26. EFSA Panel Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies: Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for cobalamin (vitamin B12). EFSA Journal 2015;13(7):4150, 64 pp. doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2015.4150
  27. Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Vitamin B12. Dietary Reference Intakes: Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington D.C.: National Academy Press; 1998:306–356.
  28. Blokdijk V, van den Berg H and Hulshof K (2000). Vitamine B12 in vlees. Voeding Nu 2: 13–15.
  29. HMSO (1990). The Dietary and Nutritional survey of British Adults. ISBN 0 11 691300 2, HMSO Books, London.
  30. Baik HW, Russell RM. Vitamin B12 deficiency in the elderly. Annu Rev Nutr. 1999; 19:357–377.
  31. Kuzminski AM, Del Giacco EJ, Allen RH, Stabler SP, Lindenbaum J. Effective treatment of cobalamin deficiency with oral cobalamin. Blood. 1998; 92(4):1191–1198.
  32. Lederle FA. Oral cobalamin for pernicious anemia. Medicine's best kept secret? JAMA. 1991; 265(1):94–95.
  33. Hathcock JN, Troendle GJ. Oral cobalamin for treatment of pernicious anemia? JAMA. 1991; 265(1):96–97.
  34. Elia M. Oral or parenteral therapy for B12 deficiency. Lancet. 1998;352(9142):1721–1722.
  35. Carmel R. Cobalamin (Vitamin B-12). In: Shils ME, Shike M, Ross AC, Caballero B, Cousins RJ, eds. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2006:482–497.
  36. Herbert V. Vitamin B-12. In: Ziegler EE, Filer LJ, eds. Present Knowledge in Nutrition. 7th ed. Washington D.C.: ILSI Press; 1996:191–205.
  37. Hendler SS, Rorvik DR, eds. PDR for Nutritional Supplements. Montvale: Medical Economics Company, Inc; 2001
  38. European Food Safety Authority, Scientific Committee on Food. Tolerable Upper Intake Levels for Vitamins and Minerals. 2006: ISBN: 92-9199-014-0.
  39. Mao B, Li Y, Zhang Z, Chen C, Chen Y, Ding C, Lei L, Li J, Jiang M, Wang D, Wang G.: One-Carbon Metabolic Factors and Risk of Renal Cell Cancer: A Meta-Analysis. PLoS One. 2015 Oct 29;10(10):e0141762. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0141762. eCollection 2015.
  40. Matejcic M, de Batlle J, Ricci C, Biessy C, Perrier F, Huybrechts I, Weiderpass E, Boutron-Ruault MC, Cadeau C, His M, Cox DG, Boeing H, Fortner RT, Kaaks R, Lagiou P, Trichopoulou A, Benetou V, Tumino R, Panico S, Sieri S, Palli D, Ricceri F, Bueno-de-Mesquita HB, Skeie G, Amiano P, Sánchez MJ, Chirlaque MD, Barricarte A, Quirós JR, Buckland G, van Gils CH, Peeters PH, Key TJ, Riboli E, Gylling B, Zeleniuch-Jacquotte A, Gunter MJ, Romieu I, Chajès V.: Biomarkers of folate and vitamin B12 and breast cancer risk: report from the EPIC cohort. Int J Cancer. 2017 Mar 15;140(6):1246-1259. doi: 10.1002/ijc.30536.
  41. Ray JG, Blom HJ.: Vitamin B12 insufficiency and the risk of fetal neural tube defects. QJM. 2003 Apr;96(4):289-95. Review.
  42. Li F1, Watkins D, Rosenblatt DS.:Vitamin B(12) and birth defects. Mol Genet Metab. 2009 Sep-Oct;98(1-2):166-72. doi: 10.1016/j.ymgme.2009.06.004. Epub 2009 Jun 11.
  43. Moore E, Mander A, Ames D, Carne R, Sanders K, Watters D.: Cognitive impairment and vitamin B12: a review. Int Psychogeriatr. 2012 Apr;24(4):541-56. doi: 10.1017/S1041610211002511. Epub 2012 Jan 6. Review.
  44. Almeida OP, Ford AH, Flicker L.: Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled trials of folate and vitamin B12 for depression. Int Psychogeriatr. 2015 May;27(5):727-37. doi: 10.1017/S1041610215000046. Epub 2015 Feb 3. Review.
  45. Pront R, Margalioth EJ, Green R, Eldar-Geva T, Maimoni Z, Zimran A, Elstein D.: Prevalence of low serum cobalamin in infertile couples. Andrologia. 2009 Feb;41(1):46-50. doi: 10.1111/j.1439-0272.2008.00895.x
  46. Chandyo RK, Ulak M, Sommerfelt H, Schneede J, Ueland PM, Strand TA.: Nutritional Intake and Status of Cobalamin and Folate among Non-Pregnant Women of Reproductive Age in Bhaktapur, Nepal. Nutrients. 2016 Jun 22;8(6). pii: E375. doi: 10.3390/nu8060375.
  47. Green R, Allen LH, Bjørke-Monsen AL, Brito A, Guéant JL, Miller JW, Molloy AM, Nexo E, Stabler S, Toh BH, Ueland PM, Yajnik C.: Vitamin B12 deficiency. Nat Rev Dis Primers. 2017 Jun 29;3:17040. doi: 10.1038/nrdp.2017.40. Review 
  48. Lai JS, Pang WW, Cai S, Lee YS, Chan JK, Shek LP, Yap FK, Tan KH, Godfrey KM, van Dam RM, Chong YS, Chong MF.: High folate and low vitamin B12 status during pregnancy is associated with gestational diabetes mellitus. Clin Nutr. 2017 Mar 24. pii: S0261-5614(17)30113-9. doi: 10.1016/j.clnu.2017.03.022. [Epub ahead of print]
  49. Thakkar, K and Billa, G: Treatment of vitamin B12 deficiency Methylcobalamine? Cyancobalamine? Hydroxocobalamin?—clearing the confusion. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2015) 69, 1–2; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2014.165; published online 13 August 2014
  50. Watanabe, F.: Vitamin B12 Sources and Bioavailability. Exp Biol Med 232:1266–1274, 2007, DOI: 10.3181/0703-MR-67

Authored by Dr Peter Engel in 2010, reviewed and revised by Angelika Friedel on 29.06.2017