Vitamin B9 // Folic Acid



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  22. Cole BF, Baron JA, Sandler RS, et al. Folic acid for the prevention of colorectal adenomas: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2007; 297(21):2351–2359.
  23. Kim YI. Does a high folate intake increase the risk of breast cancer? Nutr Rev. 2006; 64(10 Pt 1):468–475.
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  29. Luchsinger JA, Tang MX, Miller J, Green R, Mayeux R. Relation of higher folate intake to lower risk of Alzheimer disease in the elderly. Arch Neurol. 2007; 64(1):86–92.
  30. Morris MC, Evans DA, Schneider JA, Tangney CC, Bienias JL, Aggarwal NT. Dietary folate and vitamins B-12 and B-6 not associated with incident Alzheimer's disease. J Alzheimers Dis. 2006; 9(4):435–443.
  31. Morris MC, Evans DA, Bienias JL, et al. Dietary folate and vitamin B12 intake and cognitive decline among community-dwelling older persons. Arch Neurol. 2005; 62(4):641–645.
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  35. Bailey LB. Dietary reference intakes for folate: the debut of dietary folate equivalents. Nutr Rev. 1998; 56(10):294–299.
  36. Reports of the Scientific Committee for Food (31st Series), Nutrient and Energy Intakes for the European Community. 1993.
  37. Bailey LB, Gregory JF, 3rd. Polymorphisms of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase and other enzymes: metabolic significance, risks and impact on folate requirement. J Nutr. 1999; 129(5):919–922.
  38. Kauwell GP, Wilsky CE, Cerda JJ, et al. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase mutation (677C-->T) negatively influences plasma homocysteine response to marginal folate intake in elderly women. Metabolism. 2000; 49(11):1440–1443.
  39. De Bree A et al., Folate intake in Europe: recommended, actual and desired intake, European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 51 (1997) 643–660.
  40.  Nationale Verzehrsstudie II, 2008 (, Max-Rubner-Institut, Karlsruhe, Germany.
  41. EC Scientific Committee on Food, Opinion of Scientific Committee on Food on the tolerable upper intake level of folate, European Commission 28.11.2000.
  42. Gassin AL, Fortification and the European consumer: consumer awareness and attitudes to food fortification, Scandinavian Journal of Nutrition 43/4 (1999) 122–124.
  43. McNulty H, Cuskelly GJ, Ward M. Response of red blood cell folate to intervention: implications for folate recommendations for the prevention of neural tube defects. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000; 71(5):1308–1311.
  44. Spina bifida and anencephaly before and after folic acid mandate--United States, 1995-1996 and 1999-2000. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2004; 53(17):362–365.
  45. Mills JL, Signore C. Neural tube defect rates before and after food fortification with folic acid. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2004; 70(11):844–845.
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  48. Cole BF, Baron JA, Sandler RS, et al. Folic acid for the prevention of colorectal adenomas: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA, 2007; 297(21): 2351–2359.
  49. Figueiredo J. al. Folic Acid and Risk of Prostate Cancer: Results From a Randomized Clinical Trial. 2009; 101:432–435.
  50. Ebbing M et al, Cancer incidence and mortality after treatment with folic acid and vitamin B12. JAMA, 2009; 302(19); 2119-2126
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  53. Herrmann W. and Obeid R.: Functions and Deficiencies of B-Vitamins (and Their Prevention). International Encyclopedia of Public Health: ETH - HER. 2017, p199-203.
  54. Obeid R, Oexle K, Rißmann A, Pietrzik K, Koletzko B.: Folate status and health: challenges and opportunities. J Perinat Med. 2016 Apr;44(3):261-8. doi: 10.1515/jpm-2014-0346. Review.
  55. Tian, Tao; Yang, Kun-Qi; Cui, Jin-Gang; Zhou, Lan-Lan; Zhou, Xian-Liang: Clinical Investigation: Folic Acid Supplementation for Stroke Prevention in Patients With Cardiovascular Disease: A Meta-analysis. The American Journal of the Medical Sciences. Mar 2017
  56. Zhang Q, Wang Y, Xin X, Zhang Y, Liu D, Peng Z, He Y, Xu J, Ma X: Effect of folic acid supplementation on preterm delivery and small for gestational age births: A systematic review and meta-analysis.Reprod Toxicol. 2017 Jan;67:35-41. doi: 10.1016/j.reprotox.2016.11.012. Epub 2016 Nov 14
  57. Zhao M, Wu G, Li Y, Wang X, Hou FF, Xu X, Qin X, Cai Y: Meta-analysis of folic acid efficacy trials in stroke prevention: Insight into effect modifiers. Neurology. 2017 May 9;88(19):1830-1838. doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000003909. Epub 2017 Apr 12
  58. Li MM, Yu JT, Wang HF, Jiang T, Wang J, Meng XF, Tan CC, Wang C, Tan L.Efficacy of vitamins B supplementation on mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Curr Alzheimer Res. 2014;11(9):844-52.
  59. Chen H, Liu S, Ji L, Wu T, Ji Y, Zhou Y, Zheng M, Zhang M, Xu W, Huang G.: Folic Acid Supplementation Mitigates Alzheimer's Disease by Reducing Inflammation: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Mediators Inflamm. 2016;2016:5912146. doi: 10.1155/2016/5912146. Epub 2016 Jun 2.
  60. Chen P, Li C, Li X, Li J, Chu R, Wang H.: Higher dietary folate intake reduces the breast cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Cancer. 2014 Apr 29;110(9):2327-38. doi: 10.1038/bjc.2014.155. Epub 2014 Mar 25. Review.
  61. Araújo JR, Martel F, Borges N, Araújo JM, Keating E.Folates and aging: Role in mild cognitive impairment, dementia and depression. Ageing Res Rev. 2015 Jul;22:9-19. doi: 10.1016/j.arr.2015.04.005. Epub 2015 May 2. Review
  62. Stamm RA, Houghton LA.Nutrient intake values for folate during pregnancy and lactation vary widely around the world. Nutrients. 2013 Sep 30;5(10):3920-47. doi: 10.3390/nu5103920. Review.
  63. Selhub J, Rosenberg IH: Excessive folic acid intake and relation to adverse health outcome. Biochimie. 2016 Jul;126:71-8. doi: 10.1016/j.biochi.2016.04.010. Epub 2016 Apr 27. Review.

Authored by Dr Peter Engel in 2010, reviewed and revised by  Angelika Friedel on 29.06.2017

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