Vitamin B7 // Biotin



  1. Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Biotin. Dietary Reference Intakes: Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press; 1998:374–389.
  2. 9th ed. Baltimore: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 1999:459–466.
  3. Chapman-Smith A, Cronan JE, Jr. Molecular biology of biotin attachment to proteins. J Nutr. 1999; 129(2S Suppl):477S–484S. 
  4. Zempleni J, Mock DM. Biotin biochemistry and human requirements. 1999; volume 10: pages 128-138. J Nutr. Biochem. 1999; 10:128–138.
  5. Hymes J, Wolf B. Human biotinidase isn't just for recycling biotin. J Nutr. 1999; 129(2S Suppl):485S–489S.
  6. Zempleni J, Mock DM. Marginal biotin deficiency is teratogenic. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 2000; 223(1):14–21.
  7. Kothapalli N, Camporeale G, Kueh A, et al. Biological functions of biotinylated histones. J Nutr Biochem. 2005; 16(7):446–448.
  8. Mock DM, Quirk JG, Mock NI. Marginal biotin deficiency during normal pregnancy. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002; 75(2):295–299.
  9. Mock DM. Marginal biotin deficiency is common in normal human pregnancy and is highly teratogenic in mice. J Nutr. 2009; 139(1):154–157.
  10. Mock DM. Biotin status: which are valid indicators and how do we know? J Nutr. 1999; 129(2S Suppl):498S–503S.
  11. Mock DM. Biotin. In: Shils ME, Shike M, Ross AC, Caballero B, Cousins RJ, eds. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. 10th ed. Baltimore: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2006:482–497.
  12. Romero-Navarro G, Cabrera-Valladares G, German MS, et al. Biotin regulation of pancreatic glucokinase and insulin in primary cultured rat islets and in biotin-deficient rats. Endocrinology. 1999; 140(10):4595–4600.
  13. Maebashi M, Makino Y, Furukawa Y, Ohinata K, Kimura S, Sato T. Therapeutic evaluation of the effect of biotin on hyperglycemia in patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. J Clin Biochem Nutr. 1993; 14:211–218.
  14. Baez-Saldana A, Zendejas-Ruiz I, Revilla-Monsalve C, et al. Effects of biotin on pyruvate carboxylase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, propionyl-CoA carboxylase, and markers for glucose and lipid homeostasis in type 2 diabetic patients and nondiabetic subjects. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Feb;79(2):238-43.
  15. Geohas J, Daly A, Juturu V, Finch M, Komorowski JR. Chromium picolinate and biotin combination reduces atherogenic index of plasma in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a placebo-controlled, double-blinded, randomized clinical trial. Am J Med Sci. 2007 Mar;333(3):145-53
  16. Albarracin C, Fuqua B, Geohas J, Juturu V, Finch MR, Komorowski JR. Combination of chromium and biotin improves coronary risk factors in hypercholesterolemic type 2 diabetes mellitus: a placebo-controlled, double-blind randomized clinical trial. J Cardiometab Syndr. 2007 Spring;2(2):91-7.
  17. Singer GM, Geohas J. The effect of chromium picolinate and biotin supplementation on glycemic control in poorly controlled patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a placebo-controlled, double-blinded, randomized trial. Diabetes Technol Ther. 2006 Dec;8(6):636-43.
  18. Albarracin CA, Fuqua BC, Evans JL, Goldfine ID. Chromium picolinate and biotin combination improves glucose metabolism in treated, uncontrolled overweight to obese patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2008;
  19. Broadhurst CL, Domenico P. Clinical studies on chromium picolinate supplementation in diabetes mellitus--a review. Diabetes Technol Ther. 2006; 8(6):677–687.
  20. Coggeshall JC, Heggers JP, Robson MC, Baker H. Biotin status and plasma glucose levels in diabetics. Ann NY Acad Sci. 1985; 447:389–392.
  21. Romero-Navarro G, Cabrera-Valladares G, German MS, et al. Biotin regulation of pancreatic glucokinase and insulin in primary cultured rat islets and in biotin-deficient rats. Endocrinology. 1999; 140(10):4595–4600.
  22. Floersheim GL. Treatment of brittle fingernails with biotin. Z. Hautkr. 1989; 64(1):41–48.
  23. Hochman LG, Scher RK, Meyerson MS. Brittle nails: response to daily biotin supplementation. Cutis. 1993; 51(4):303–305.
  24. Chulpis KH, Nyalala JO, Papakonstantinou ED, et al. Biotin recycling impairment in phenylketonuric children with seborrheic dermatitis. Int J Dermatol. 1998; 37:918–921.
  25. Reports of the Scientific Committee for Food (31st Series), Nutrient and Energy Intakes for the European Community. 1993.
  26. European Food Safety Authority, Scientific Committee on Food. Tolerable Upper Intake Levels for Vitamins and Minerals. 2006: ISBN: 92-9199-014-0.
  27. U.K. Office for National Statistics, The National Diet & Nutrition Survey (NDNS): adults aged 19 to 64 years (2003).
  28. Irish Universities Nutrition Alliance (IUNA), The North-South Ireland Food Consumption Survey (2001).
  29. Mock DM. Marginal biotin deficiency is teratogenic in mice and perhaps humans: a review of biotin deficiency during human pregnancy and effects of biotin deficiency on gene expression and enzyme activities in mouse dam and fetus. J Nutr Biochem. 2005 Jul;16(7):435-7.
  30. Stratton SL, Bogusiewicz A, Mock MM, Mock NI, Wells AM, Mock DM. Lymphocyte propionyl-CoA carboxylase and its activation by biotin are sensitive indicators of marginal biotin deficiency in humans. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006;
  31. Mock D, Henrich C, Carnell N, Mock N, Swift L. Lymphocyte propionyl-CoA carboxylase and accumulation of odd-chain fatty acid in plasma and erythrocytes are useful indicators of marginal biotin deficiency. Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, 13, 462-470
  32. Pabuccuoglu A, Aydogdu S, Bas M. Serum biotinidase activity in children with chronic liver disease and its clinical significance. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2002; 34(1):59–62.
  33. Schulpis KH, Karikas GA, Tjamouranis J, Regoutas S, Tsakiris S. Low serum biotinidase activity in children with valproic acid monotherapy. Epilepsia. 2001; 42(10):1359–1362.
  34. Baumgartner ER, Suormala T. Inherited defects of biotin metabolism. Biofactors. 1999; 10(2-3):287–290.
  35. Said HM, Ortiz A, McCloud E, Dyer D, Moyer MP, Rubin S. Biotin uptake by human colonic epithelial NCM460 cells: a carrier-mediated process shared with pantothenic acid. Am J Physiol. 1998; 275(5 Pt 1):C1365–1371.
  36. Debourdeau PM, Djezzar S, Estival JL, Zammit CM, Richard RC, Castot AC. Life-threatening eosinophilic pleuropericardial effusion related to vitamins B5 and H. Ann Pharmacother. 2001; 35(4):424–426.
  37. Koutsikos D, Agroyannis B, Tzanatos-Exarchou H. Biotin for diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Biomed Pharmacother. 1990; 44(10):511–514.
  38. Zempleni J, Mock DM. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells: Inhibition of biotin transport by reversible competition with pantothenic acid is quantitatively minor. J Nutr Biochem. 1999; 10(7):427–432.
  39. Magnusdottir S, Ravcheev D, de Crecy-Lagard V, Thiele I. Systematic genome assessment of B-vitamin biosynthesis suggests co-operation among gut microbes. Front Genet. 2015;6:148.
  40. Natural-Medicines. Biotin/Drug interactions. 2014 ed.; 2014
  41. Mock NI1, Malik MI, Stumbo PJ, Bishop WP, Mock DM. Increased urinary excretion of 3-hydroxyisovaleric acid and decreased urinary excretion of biotin are sensitive early indicators of decreased biotin status in experimental biotin deficiency. Am J Clin Nutr. 1997 Apr;65(4):951-8.
  42. Perry CA, West AA, Gayle A, et al. Pregnancy and lactation alter biomarkers of biotin metabolism in women consuming a controlled diet. J Nutr. 2014;144(12):1977-1984.
  43. Sealey WM, Teague AM, Stratton SL, Mock DM. Smoking accelerates biotin catabolism in women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;80(4):932-935
  44. Zempleni J, Hassan YI, Wijeratne SS. Biotin and biotinidase deficiency. Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab. 2008;3(6):715-724
  45. Linus Pauling Institute – Micronutrient information center. May 2017 accessed. 
  46. Zempleni J, Suttie JW, Gregory III JF, Stover PJ, editors. Handbook of Vitamins. Fifth Edition, CRC Press: Taylor & Francis Group; 2014
  47. European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for biotin. EFSA Journal 2014;12(2):3580
  48. Sedel F, Papeix C, Bellanger A, et al. High doses of biotin in chronic progressive multiple sclerosis: a pilot study. Mult Scler Relat Disord. 2015;4(2):159-169.
  49. Sedel F, Bernard D, Mock DM, Tourbah A. Targeting demyelination and virtual hypoxia with high-dose biotin as a treatment for progressive multiple sclerosis. Neuropharmacology. 2016 Nov;110(Pt B):644-653.
  50. Tourbah A, Lebrun-Frenay C, Edan G, Clanet M, Papeix C, Vukusic S, De Sèze J, Debouverie M, Gout O, Clavelou P, Defer G, Laplaud DA, Moreau T, Labauge P, Brochet B, Sedel F, Pelletier J; MS-SPI study group. MD1003 (high-dose biotin) for the treatment of progressive multiple sclerosis: A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Mult Scler. 2016 Nov;22(13):1719-1731. Epub 2016 Sep 1.
  51. Chirapu SR, Rotter CJ, Miller EL, Varma MV, Dow RL, Finn MG. High specificity in response of the sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter to derivatives of pantothenic acid. Curr Top Med Chem. 2013;13(7):837-842
  52. Prasad PD, Wang H, Kekuda R, et al. Cloning and functional expression of a cDNA encoding a mammalian sodium-dependent vitamin transporter mediating the uptake of pantothenate, biotin, and lipoate. J Biol Chem. 1998;273(13):7501-7506
  53. Zempleni J, Trusty TA, Mock DM. Lipoic acid reduces the activities of biotin-dependent carboxylases in rat liver. J Nutr. 1997;127(9):1776-1781
  54. Trüb RM. Serum Biotin Levels in Women Complaining of Hair Loss. Int J Trichology. 2016 Apr-Jun; 8(2): 73–77.
  55. Famenini S, Goh C. Evidence for supplemental treatments in androgenetic alopecia. J Drugs Dermatol. 2014;13(7):809-812
  56. Said HM, Redha R, Nylander W. Biotin transport in the human intestine: inhibition by anticonvulsant drugs. Am J Clin Nutr. 1989 Jan;49(1):127-31.
  57. Mock DM, Dyken ME. Biotin catabolism is accelerated in adults receiving long-term therapy with anticonvulsants. Neurology. 1997 Nov;49(5):1444-7.
  58. Zempleni J, Gralla M, Camporeale G, Hassan YI. Sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter gene is regulated at the chromatin level by histone biotinylation in human Jurkat lymphoblastoma cells. J Nutr. 2009;139(1):163-166.
  59. Zempleni J, Li Y, Xue J, Cordonier EL. The role of holocarboxylase synthetase in genome stability is mediated partly by epigenomic synergies between methylation and biotinylation events. Epigenetics. 2011;6(7):892-894.
  60. Janos Zempleni, Dandan Liu, Daniel Teixeira Camara, and Elizabeth L. Cordonier. Novel roles of holocarboxylase synthetase in gene regulation and intermediary metabolism. Nutr Rev. 2014 June ; 72(6): 369–376.
  61. Takechi R, Taniguchi A, Ebara S, Fukui T, Watanabe T. Biotin deficiency affects the proliferation of human embryonic palatal mesenchymal cells in culture. J Nutr. 2008;138(4):680-684.
  62. Colombo VE1, Gerber F, Bronhofer M, Floersheim GL. Treatment of brittle fingernails and onychoschizia with biotin: scanning electron microscopy. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1990 Dec;23(6 Pt 1):1127-32.

Authored by Dr Peter Engel in 2010, reviewed and revised by Ines Warnke on 28.06.2017

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