1. Traber MG. Utilization of vitamin E. Biofactors. 1999; 10(2-3):115–120.
  2. Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Vitamin E. Dietary reference intakes for vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium, and carotenoids. Washington D.C.: National Academy Press; 2000:186–283.
  3. Traber MG. Vitamin E. In: Shils ME, Shike M, Ross AC, Caballero B, Cousins RJ, eds. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkiins; 2006:396–411.
  4. Bruno RS, Leonard SW, Atkinson J, et al. Faster plasma vitamin E disappearance in smokers is normalized by vitamin C supplementation. Free Radic Biol Med. 2006; 40(4):689–697.
  5. Traber MG. Does vitamin E decrease heart attack risk? summary and implications with respect to dietary recommendations. J Nutr. 2001; 131(2):395–397.
  6. Traber MG. Vitamin E regulatory mechanisms. Annu Rev Nutr. 2007; 27:347–362.
  7. Christen S, Woodall AA, Shigenaga MK, Southwell-Keely PT, Duncan MW, Ames BN. gamma-tocopherol traps mutagenic electrophiles such as NO(X) and complements alpha-tocopherol: physiological implications. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997; 94(7):3217–3222.
  8. Li D, Saldeen T, Mehta JL. gamma-tocopherol decreases ox-LDL-mediated activation of nuclear factor-kappaB and apoptosis in human coronary artery endothelial cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1999; 259(1):157–161.
  9. Helzlsouer KJ, Huang HY, Alberg AJ, et al. Association between alpha-tocopherol, gamma-tocopherol, selenium, and subsequent prostate cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2000; 92(24):2018–2023.
  10. Jiang Q, Christen S, Shigenaga MK, Ames BN. gamma-tocopherol, the major form of vitamin E in the US diet, deserves more attention. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001; 74(6):714–722.
  11. Knekt P, Reunanen A, Jarvinen R, Seppanen R, Heliovaara M, Aromaa A. Antioxidant vitamin intake and coronary mortality in a longitudinal population study. Am J Epidemiol. 1994; 139(12):1180–1189.
  12. Kushi LH, Folsom AR, Prineas RJ, Mink PJ, Wu Y, Bostick RM. Dietary antioxidant vitamins and death from coronary heart disease in postmenopausal women. N Engl J Med. 1996; 334(18):1156–1162.
  13. Rimm EB, Stampfer MJ, Ascherio A, Giovannucci E, Colditz GA, Willett WC. Vitamin E consumption and the risk of coronary heart disease in men. N Engl J Med. 1993; 328(20):1450–1456.
  14. Stampfer MJ, Hennekens CH, Manson JE, Colditz GA, Rosner B, Willett WC. Vitamin E consumption and the risk of coronary disease in women. N Engl J Med. 1993; 328(20):1444–1449.
  15. Lee IM, Cook NR, Gaziano JM, et al. Vitamin E in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer: the Women's Health Study: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2005; 294(1):56–65.
  16. Glynn RJ, Ridker PM, Goldhaber SZ, Zee RY, Buring JE. Effects of random allocation to vitamin E supplementation on the occurrence of venous thromboembolism: report from the Women's Health Study. Circulation. 2007; 116(13):1497–1503.
  17. Jialal I., Devaraj S. Vitamin E supplementation and cardiovascular events in high-risk patients. N Engl J Med, 2000; 342:154–60.
  18. Lonn E. et al. HOPE and HOPE-TOO Trial Investigators. Effects of long-term vitamin E supplementation on cardiovascular events and cancer: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA, 2005; 293:1338–47.
  19. Levy Y et al. The effect of vitamin E supplementation on cardiovascular risk in diabetic individuals with different haptoglobin phenotypes. Diabetes Care. 2004; 27(11):2767.
  20. Milman U et al. Vitamin E supplementation reduces cardiovascular events in a subgroup of middle-aged individuals with both type 2 diabetes mellitus and the haptoglobin 2-2 genotype: a prospective, double-blinded clinical trial. Art Thromb Vasc Biol. 2008; 28:341–347.
  21. West AL, Oren GA, Moroi SE. Evidence for the use of nutritional supplements and herbal medicines in common eye diseases. Am J Ophthalmol. 2006; 141(1):157–166.
  22. A randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial of high-dose supplementation with vitamins C and E and beta carotene for age-related cataract and vision loss: AREDS report no. 9. Arch Ophthalmol. 2001; 119(10):1439–1452.
  23. Gritz DC, Srinivasan M, Smith SD, et al. The Antioxidants in Prevention of Cataracts Study: effects of antioxidant supplements on cataract progression in South India. Br J Ophthalmol. 2006; 90(7):847–851.
  24. McNeil JJ, Robman L, Tikellis G, Sinclair MI, McCarty CA, Taylor HR. Vitamin E supplementation and cataract: randomized controlled trial. Ophthalmology. 2004; 111(1):75–84.
  25. Meydani SN, Meydani M, Blumberg JB, et al. Vitamin E supplementation and in vivo immune response in healthy elderly subjects. A randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 1997; 277(17):1380–1386.
  26. Meydani SN, Leka LS, Fine BC, et al. Vitamin E and respiratory tract infections in elderly nursing home residents: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2004; 292(7):828–836.
  27. Slatore CG, Littman AJ, Au DH, Satia JA, White E. Long-term use of supplemental multivitamins, vitamin C, vitamin E, and folate does not reduce the risk of lung cancer. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2008; 177(5):524–530.
  28. Alkhenizan A, Hafez K. The role of vitamin E in the prevention of cancer: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Ann Saudi Med. 2007; 27(6):409–414.
  29. Heinonen OP, Albanes D, Virtamo J, et al. Prostate cancer and supplementation with alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene: incidence and mortality in a controlled trial. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1998; 90(6):440–446.
  30. Klein EA, Thompson IM, Lippman SM, et al. SELECT: the next prostate cancer prevention trial. Selenum and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial. J Urol. 2001; 166(4):1311–1315.
  31. Lippman SM, Klein EA, Goodman PJ, et al. Effect of selenium and vitamin E on risk of prostate cancer and other cancers: the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT). JAMA. 2009; 301(1):39–51.
  32. Masaki KH, Losonczy KG, Izmirlian G, et al. Association of vitamin E and C supplement use with cognitive function and dementia in elderly men. Neurology. 2000; 54(6):1265–1272.
  33. Stephens NG, Parsons A, Schofield PM, Kelly F, Cheeseman K, Mitchinson MJ. Randomised controlled trial of vitamin E in patients with coronary disease: Cambridge Heart Antioxidant Study (CHAOS). Lancet. 1996; 347(9004):781–786.
  34. Boaz M, Smetana S, Weinstein T, et al. Secondary prevention with antioxidants of cardiovascular disease in endstage renal disease (SPACE): randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2000; 356(9237):1213–1218.
  35. Rapola JM, Virtamo J, Ripatti S, et al. Randomised trial of alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene supplements on incidence of major coronary events in men with previous myocardial infarction. Lancet. 1997; 349(9067):1715–1720.
  36. Yusuf S, Dagenais G, Pogue J, Bosch J, Sleight P. Vitamin E supplementation and cardiovascular events in high-risk patients. The Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation Study Investigators. N Engl J Med. 2000; 342(3):154–160.
  37. Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell'Infarto miocardico. Dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin E after myocardial infarction: results of the GISSI-Prevenzione trial. Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell'Infarto miocardico. Lancet. 1999; 354(9177):447–455.
  38. Rodrigo R, Prat H. et al. Decrease in oxidative stress through supplementaion of vitamins C and E is associated with a reduction in blood pressure in patients with essential hypertension. Clinical Science 2008; 114:625–634.
  39. Paolisso G, D'Amore A, Giugliano D, Ceriello A, Varricchio M, D'Onofrio F. Pharmacologic doses of vitamin E improve insulin action in healthy subjects and non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients. Am J Clin Nutr. 1993; 57(5):650–656.
  40. Paolisso G, Di Maro G, Galzerano D, et al. Pharmacological doses of vitamin E and insulin action in elderly subjects. Am J Clin Nutr. 1994; 59(6):1291–1296.
  41. Paolisso G, D'Amore A, Galzerano D, et al. Daily vitamin E supplements improve metabolic control but not insulin secretion in elderly type II diabetic patients. Diabetes Care. 1993; 16(11):1433–1437.
  42. Reaven PD, Herold DA, Barnett J, Edelman S. Effects of Vitamin E on susceptibility of low-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein subfractions to oxidation and on protein glycation in NIDDM. Diabetes Care. 1995; 18(6):807–816.
  43. Davi G, Ciabattoni G, Consoli A, et al. In vivo formation of 8-iso-prostaglandin f2alpha and platelet activation in diabetes mellitus: effects of improved metabolic control and vitamin E supplementation. Circulation. 1999; 99(2):224–229.
  44. Jain SK, McVie R, Jaramillo JJ, Palmer M, Smith T. Effect of modest vitamin E supplementation on blood glycated hemoglobin and triglyceride levels and red cell indices in type I diabetic patients. J Am Coll Nutr. 1996; 15(5):458–461.
  45. Meydani M. Antioxidants and cognitive function. Nutr Rev. 2001; 59(8 Pt 2):S75-80; discussion S80-72.
  46. Sano M, Ernesto C, Thomas RG, et al. A controlled trial of selegiline, alpha-tocopherol, or both as treatment for Alzheimer's disease. The Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study. N Engl J Med. 1997; 336(17):1216–1222.
  47. Petersen RC, Thomas RG, Grundman M, et al. Vitamin E and donepezil for the treatment of mild cognitive impairment. N Engl J Med. 2005; 352(23):2379–2388.
  48. Masaki KH, Losonczy KG, Izmirlian G, et al. Association of vitamin E and C supplement use with cognitive function and dementia in elderly men. Neurology, 2000; 54(6):1265–1272.
  49. Yu W, Sanders BG, Kline K. RRR-alpha-tocopheryl succinate-induced apoptosis of human breast cancer cells involves Bax translocation to mitochondria. Cancer Res. 2003; 63(10):2483–2491.
  50. You H, Yu W, Munoz-Medellin D, Brown PH, Sanders BG, Kline K. Role of extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway in RRR-alpha-tocopheryl succinate-induced differentiation of human MDA-MB-435 breast cancer cells. Mol Carcinog. 2002; 33(4):228–236.
  51. Neuzil J, Weber T, Schroder A, et al. Induction of cancer cell apoptosis by alpha-tocopheryl succinate: molecular pathways and structural requirements. FASEB J. 2001; 15(2):403–415.
  52. Brigelius-Flohe R, Kelly FJ, Salonen JT, Neuzil J, Zingg JM, Azzi A. The European perspective on vitamin E: current knowledge and future research. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002; 76(4):703–716.
  53. Nussenblatt R. et al. Vitamin E in the Treatment of Uveitis-Associated Macular Edema. American Journal of Ophthalmology. 2006; 141(1):193–194.
  54. Darr D, Dunston S, Faust H, Pinnell S. Effectiveness of antioxidants (vitamin C and E) with and without sunscreens as topical photoprotectants. Acta Derm Venereol (Stockh). 1996; 76(4):264–268.
  55. Mirbagheri SA, Nezami BG, Assa S, Hajimahmoodi M. Rectal administration of d-alpha tocopherol for active ulcerative colitis: A preliminary report. World J Gastroenterol 2008; 14(39): 5990–5995
  56. Gomez JA, Molero X, Vaquero E, Alonso A, Salas A, Malagelada JR. Vitamin E attenuates biochemical and morphological features associated with the development of chronic pancreatitis. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2004; 287(1):G162–9.
  57. Chrubasik S. Vitamin E for rheumatoid arthritis or osteoarthritis: low evidence of effectiveness. Z Rheumatol. 2003 Oct; 62(5):491.
  58. Molina j. A. et al. Cerebrospinal fluid levels of alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E) in Parkinson's disease. Journal of Neural Transmission. 1997; 104(11–12).
  59. Saul A. W. Vitamin E: A cure in search of recognition. Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine, 2003; 18(3+4): 205–212.
  60. Raederstorff, D., A. Wyss, P. C. Calder, P. Weber and M. Eggersdorfer (2015). "Vitamin E function and requirements in relation to PUFA." Br J Nutr 114(8): 1113-1122.
  61. Traber MG, Sies H. Vitamin E in humans: demand and delivery. Annu Rev Nutr. 1996; 16:321–47.
  62. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2015. Scientific Opinion on  Dietary  Reference  Values  for  vitamin  E  as  α-tocopherol.  EFSA  Journal  2015;13(7):4149,  72  pp.
  63. Mensink GBM et al. (1999) Die Ernährung in Deutschland 1998. Gesundheitswesen 61, Sonderheft 2, 200–6.
  64. Nationale Verzehrsstudie II, 2008 (, Max-Rubner-Institut, Karlsruhe, Germany.
  65. Institut für Ernährungswissenschaften, Österreichischer Ernährungsbericht (1998).
  66. U.K. Office for National Statistics, The National Diet & Nutrition Survey (NDNS): adults aged 19 to 64 years (2003).
  67. Ford ES, Sowell A. Serum alpha-tocopherol status in the United States population: findings from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Am J Epidemiol. 1999; 150(3):290-300.
  68. Ahuja JK, Goldman JD, Moshfegh AJ. Current status of vitamin E nutriture. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2004; 1031:387–390.
  69. Fulgoni VL, 3rd, Keast DR, Bailey RL, Dwyer J. Foods, fortificants, and supplements: Where do Americans get their nutrients? J Nutr. 2011;141(10):1847-1854.
  70. Traber MG. Vitamin E. In: Bowman BA, Russell RM, eds. Present Knowledge in Nutrition. 9th ed. Volume 1. Washington, D.C.: ILSI Press; 2006:211–219.
  71. Hendler SS, Rorvik DR, eds. PDR for Nutritional Supplements. Montvale: Medical Economics Company, Inc; 2001.
  72. Miller ER, Pastor-Barriuso R, Dalal D, Riemersma RA, Appel LJ, Guallar E. Meta-analysis: high-dosage vitamin E supplementation may increase all-cause mortality. Ann Intern Med. 2005; 142(1):37–46.
  73. Shekelle PG, Morton SC, Jungvig LK, et al. Effect of supplemental vitamin E for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease. J Gen Intern Med. 2004; 19(4):380–389.
  74. Eidelman RS, Hollar D, Hebert PR, Lamas GA, Hennekens CH. Randomized trials of vitamin E in the treatment and prevention of cardiovascular disease. Arch Intern Med. 2004; 164(14):1552–1556.
  75. Vivekananthan DP, Penn MS, Sapp SK, Hsu A, Topol EJ. Use of antioxidant vitamins for the prevention of cardiovascular disease: meta-analysis of randomised trials. Lancet. 2003; 361(9374):2017–2023.
  76. Bjelakovic G, Nikolova D, Gluud LL, Simonetti RG, Gluud C. Mortality in randomized trials of antioxidant supplements for primary and secondary prevention: systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA. 2007; 297(8):842-857.
  77. Ristow M. et al. Antioxidants prevent health-promoting effects of physical exercise in humans. PNAS Early Edition, online. 2009.
  78. European Food Safety Authority, Scientific Committee on Food. Tolerable Upper Intake Levels for Vitamins and Minerals. 2006: ISBN: 92-9199-014-0.
  79. Gerß J. and Köpcke W. The questionable association of vitamin E supplementation and mortality - inconsistent results of different meta-analytic approaches. Cellular and Molecular Biology. 2009; 55: 1111-20.
  80. Biesalski H. K. et al. Reexamination of a meta-analysis of the effect of antioxidant supplementation on mortality and health in randomized trials. Nutrients. 2010; 2:929–949.
  81. Traber M. G. Mechanisms for the Prevention of Vitamin E Excess. Journal of Lipid Research. Published online April 2013.
  82. Bjelakovic G. et al. Meta-Regression Analyses, Meta-Analyses, and Trial Sequential Analyses of the Effects of Supplementation with Beta-Carotene, Vitamin A, and Vitamin E Singly or in Different Combinations on All-Cause Mortality: Do We Have Evidence for Lack of Harm?  PLoS One. 2013; 8(9):e74558.
  83. Abner E. L. Vitamin E and all-cause mortality: a meta-analysis. Curr Aging Sci. 2011; 4(2):158–170.
  84. Péter et al. A systematic review of global α-tocopherol status as assessed by nutritional intake levels and blood serum concentrations. Int. J. Vitam. Nutr. Res., 2016, 1 – 21.
  85. Mangialasche, F., Xu, W., Kivipelto, M., Costanzi, E., Ercolani, S., Pigliautile, M., Cecchetti, R., Baglioni, M., Simmons, A., Soininen, H., Tsolaki, M., Kloszewska, I., Vellas, B., Lovestone, S., Mecocci, P. and AddNeuroMed Consortium (2012) Tocopherols and tocotrienols plasma levels are associated with cognitive impairment. Neurobiol Aging. 33, 2282 – 2290.
  86. Goyal, A., Terry, M.B. and Siegel, A.B. (2013) Serum antioxidant nutrients, vitamin A, and mortality in U.S. Adults. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 22, 2202 – 2211.
  87. Abner, E. L., F. A. Schmitt, M. S. Mendiondo, J. L. Marcum and R. J. Kryscio (2011). "Vitamin E and all-cause mortality: a meta-analysis." Curr Aging Sci 4(2): 158-170.
  88. Berry, D., J. K. Wathen and M. Newell (2009). "Bayesian model averaging in meta-analysis: vitamin E supplementation and mortality." Clin Trials 6(1): 28-41.
  89. Curtis, A. J., M. Bullen, L. Piccenna and J. J. McNeil (2014). "Vitamin E supplementation and mortality in healthy people: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials." Cardiovasc Drugs Ther 28(6): 563-573.
  90. Jiang, S., Z. Pan, H. Li, F. Li, Y. Song and Y. Qiu (2014). "Meta-analysis: low-dose intake of vitamin E combined with other vitamins or minerals may decrease all-cause mortality." J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 60(3): 194-205.
  91. Péter et al. The Challenge of Setting Appropriate Intake Recommendations for Vitamin E: Considerations on Status and Functionality to Define Nutrient Requirements. Int. J. Vitam. Nutr. Res., 83 (2), 2013, 129 – 136.
  92. Vardi, M., S. Blum and A. P. Levy (2012). "Haptoglobin genotype and cardiovascular outcomes in diabetes mellitus - natural history of the disease and the effect of vitamin E treatment. Meta-analysis of the medical literature." Eur J Intern Med 23(7): 628-632.
  93. Dysken, M. W., M. Sano, S. Asthana, J. E. Vertrees, M. Pallaki, M. Llorente, S. Love, G. D. Schellenberg, J. R. McCarten, J. Malphurs, S. Prieto, P. Chen, D. J. Loreck, G. Trapp, R. S. Bakshi, J. E. Mintzer, J. L. Heidebrink, A. Vidal-Cardona, L. M. Arroyo, A. R. Cruz, S. Zachariah, N. W. Kowall, M. P. Chopra, S. Craft, S. Thielke, C. L. Turvey, C. Woodman, K. A. Monnell, K. Gordon, J. Tomaska, Y. Segal, P. N. Peduzzi and P. D. Guarino (2014). "Effect of vitamin E and memantine on functional decline in Alzheimer disease: the TEAM-AD VA cooperative randomized trial." JAMA 311(1): 33-44.
  94. Shamim, A. A., K. Schulze, R. D. Merrill, A. Kabir, P. Christian, S. Shaikh, L. Wu, H. Ali, A. B. Labrique, S. Mehra, R. D. Klemm, M. Rashid, P. Sungpuag, E. Udomkesmalee and K. P. West, Jr. (2015). "First-trimester plasma tocopherols are associated with risk of miscarriage in rural Bangladesh." Am J Clin Nutr 101(2): 294-301.
  95. Zhang, Y., W. Jiang, Z. Xie, W. Wu and D. Zhang (2015). "Vitamin E and risk of age-related cataract: a meta-analysis." Public Health Nutr 18(15): 2804-2814.
  96. Christen, W. G., R. J. Glynn, J. M. Gaziano, A. K. Darke, J. J. Crowley, P. J. Goodman, S. M. Lippman, T. E. Lad, J. D. Bearden, G. E. Goodman, L. M. Minasian, I. M. Thompson, Jr., C. D. Blanke and E. A. Klein (2015). "Age-related cataract in men in the selenium and vitamin e cancer prevention trial eye endpoints study: a randomized clinical trial." JAMA Ophthalmol 133(1): 17-24.
  97. Sanyal, A. J., N. Chalasani, K. V. Kowdley, A. McCullough, A. M. Diehl, N. M. Bass, B. A. Neuschwander-Tetri, J. E. Lavine, J. Tonascia, A. Unalp, M. Van Natta, J. Clark, E. M. Brunt, D. E. Kleiner, J. H. Hoofnagle, P. R. Robuck and C. R. N. Nash (2010). "Pioglitazone, vitamin E, or placebo for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis." N Engl J Med 362(18): 1675-1685.
  98. Lavine, J. E., J. B. Schwimmer, M. L. Van Natta, J. P. Molleston, K. F. Murray, P. Rosenthal, S. H. Abrams, A. O. Scheimann, A. J. Sanyal, N. Chalasani, J. Tonascia, A. Unalp, J. M. Clark, E. M. Brunt, D. E. Kleiner, J. H. Hoofnagle, P. R. Robuck and N. Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis Clinical Research (2011). "Effect of vitamin E or metformin for treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in children and adolescents: the TONIC randomized controlled trial." JAMA 305(16): 1659-1668.
  99. Pacana, T. and A. J. Sanyal (2012). "Vitamin E and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease." Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 15(6): 641-648.
  100. Chalasani, N., Z. Younossi, J. E. Lavine, A. M. Diehl, E. M. Brunt, K. Cusi, M. Charlton, A. J. Sanyal, A. American Gastroenterological, D. American Association for the Study of Liver and G. American College of (2012). "The diagnosis and management of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: practice guideline by the American Gastroenterological Association, American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases, and American College of Gastroenterology." Gastroenterology 142(7): 1592-1609.

Authored by Dr Peter Engel in 2010, reviewed and updated by Dr Szabolcs Peter on 18.06.2017