Because of the lack of specific information about the vitamin K requirement, the European Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies has set no population reference intakes (PRI) for vitamin K but considers a daily intake of 1 microgram (mcg) per kilogram (kg) body weight to be adequate and provided by a normal diet (25).
Some European countries have set values for recommended vitamin K intake. Germany, Austria and Switzerland recommend an estimated value of 70 micrograms (mcg) vitamin K per day for men and 60 micrograms (mcg) per day for women (26).
In 2001, the United States Food and Nutrition Board established the adequate intake (AI) level for vitamin K based on consumption levels of healthy individuals (27):
|Life Stage||Age||Males (mcg/day)||Females (mcg/day)|
|Adults||19 years and older||120||90|
|Pregnancy||18 years and younger||-||75|
|Pregnancy||19 years and older||-||90|
|Breast-feeding||18 years and younger||-||75|
|Breast-feeding||19 years and older||-||90|
* The AI for infants is based on an estimated intake of vitamin K from breast milk.
The current values are predominantly based on the daily vitamin K intake of healthy individuals; they do not reflect any additional level of vitamin K, which may promote potential health benefits.
The dietary intake of vitamin K required for optimal function of all vitamin K-dependent proteins is not yet known. To obtain the amount of vitamin K associated with a decreased risk of hip fracture in the Framingham Heart Study (12), an individual would need to consume about 250 micrograms (mcg) per day.
For a detailed overview of recommended daily intakes (PRIs/RDAs) of vitamins and minerals for adults derived from different countries and organizations see PDF.
People being treated with anticoagulants (heparin) in particular should consult their medical adviser before taking vitamin K supplements.
Newborn infants are at an increased risk of deficiency (see Deficiency).
Authored by Dr Peter Engel in 2010, reviewed and updated by Dr Szabolcs Peter on 18.06.2017